USE OF RAPD ANALYSIS FOR THE STUDY OF GENETIC POLYMORPHISM OF FLAX VARIETIES OF UKRAINIAN AND FOREIGN SELECTION
Flax is one of the oldest and most important spinning crops in the world. First discovered in the south of Spain, he began his selection movement, which continues today. Nowadays, flax breeding has achieved significant results in increasing fiber in plant stems, seed productivity, quality oil composition, resistance to major diseases and pests such as fusarium and anthracnose. Flax is distinguished by its high-quality fibrous and seed products, which are used for the production of various fabrics and oil for food and technical purposes. Linen fabric is characterized by high strength and hypoallergenicity, and the oil contains essential polyunsaturated acids. Today, genetic collections of flax stored and used by research and educational institutions amount to tens of thousands of specimens. Such a number of samples, in theory, allows obtaining a variety of raw material for successful selection, but at the same time, there is a tendency to genetic impoverishment of the species due to intensive selection influence. Conducting the selection process with flax culture is always based on the evaluation of morphological indicators of a huge mass of plant material with its annual field evaluation. This practice significantly slows down the creation of new varieties. Instead, the use in the selection process with flax culture of tools capable of working with the genetic basis of the organism directly significantly accelerates the process of creating new material, makes it more accurate through the identification and selection of target genes. The purpose of this article is to identify flax samples of the National Collection using randomly selected decameric RAPD primers (random amplified of polymorphic DNA). Flax samples of different ecological and geographical origin were used in the work. Polymerase chain reaction was performed using two decamer primers Ver_1 AATCGGGCTG and Ver_2 GTTGCGATCC. As a result of the research, 55 loci (25 and 30, respectively, for each primer) were found, indicating the effectiveness of the amplification. The degree of polymorphism of the obtained loci was from 57 to 78%. It was also established that Ukrainian flax samples are genetically more closely related; European samples naturally have tighter genetic patterns.
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