Keywords: soybean, variety, fertilizers, micro fertilizers, yield structure, number of seeds, performance, yield capacity


Soy is an important leguminous crop due to its wide range of applications in various sectors of the national economy. Due to the biochemical composition of the seed, it is of particular importance in the food industry and is a prerequisite to settle the problems of protein and fat deficiency, which is relevant due to the growing population in the world. Therefore, the most important goal of growing soybeans, as well as other crops, is obtaining high yields of high-quality grain. An important prerequisite for the fulfillment of the genetic potential of soybeans is to provide them with nutrients because soybeans are quite picky about nutrients. That is why mineral fertilizers and preparations for foliar fertilization are widely used to regulate soybean nutrition, which has gained popularity on the market in recent years thanks to their efficiency and ease of use. The article presents the results of research on the study of varietal characteristics of soybeans and the influence of different rates of mineral fertilizers in combination with the use of foliar fertilization on the formation of elements of the crop structure (the number and weight of seeds per plant) and performance. Based on our research under the conditions of the Left Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine, it was established that the application of mineral fertilizers combined with foliar fertilization of soybeans during the growing season has a positive effect on individual performance and yield. In particular, the increase in the number of seeds on a soybean plant, depending on the rates of mineral fertilizers, was on average compared to the control: the Kyoto variety was 28.9–31.7% more, Lisbon – 29.7-31.4%, Diadema Podillia – 29.7-33.4%; from the foliar fertilization: in the Kyoto variety by 13.3-18.3%, Lisbon – 15.1- 19.1%, Diadema Podillia – 16.5-23.1%. The weight of seeds from a soybean plant increased compared to the control according to the fertilizer rates: for the Lisbon variety by 30.12-32.31%, Kyoto – 32.1-33.7%, Diadema Podillia – 30.8-34.7%; from foliar fertilization: Lisbon by 17.41-22.72%, Kyoto – 15.3-21.0%, Diadema Podillia – 18.0-25.68%. At the same time, the application of mineral fertilizers provided an increase in yield by 0.9-1.0 t/ha or 29.7-31.2%, the use of preparations for foliar fertilization – by 0.3-0.5 t/ha or 12, 5-15.5%. Thus, among the investigated options, the largest number of seeds was formed by growing the Kyoto variety on the background of mineral fertilizers N30P60K90 and using Basfoliar 36 Extra, Solu Bor – 1.5 l/ha and Basfoliar 6-12-6 – 3 l/ha. The highest rate of seed mass per plant (8.10 g) and yield (3.45 t/ha) was characteristic of the Lisbon variety against the background of mineral fertilizers N30P60K90 and application of Vuksal Microplant – 2 l/ha, Vuksal Combi Plus – 3 l/ha and Vuksal Aminoplant – 2 l/ha.


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