YIELD OF CORN PER GRAIN DEPENDING ON THE FORMS AND NORMS OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER APPLICATION IN THE CONDITIONS OF NORTHEASTERN UKRAINE
The article presents the results of research on the study of the impact of different forms and rates of nitrogen fertilizer application on the yield of corn grain in the conditions of northeastern Ukraine. The best parameters for the use of mineral fertilizers in corn fertilization have been revealed. It was established that among the studied forms of nitrogen fertilizers, anhydrous ammonia was the most effective, which, on average, over the years of research, provided a yield level of 8.55–10.2 t/ha depending on the rate of nitrogen application. Urea was somewhat less effective, the collection of corn grain when applied was 7.97–9.70 t/ha. UAN-32 turned out to be the least effective form of nitrogen fertilizers in the conditions of northeastern Ukraine. Its use as a source of mineral nitrogen ensured the yield of the studied crop of 7.40–9.15 t/ha. The optimal rate of application of nitrogen fertilizers in the conditions of the north-east of Ukraine has been established. The highest grain productivity was noted in the variant of the experiment, in which N150 was applied on a phosphoruspotassium background of P60K60 when using anhydrous ammonia, urea and UAN-32. Depending on the form of nitrogen fertilizers, from 9.15 to 10.2 tons of corn grain was obtained from 1 ha. The use of both lower 90 and 120 kg/ha а.s., and higher 180 and 210 kg/ha a.s. rates of application of nitrogen fertilizers provided much lower efficiency compared to the above-mentioned option. It has been proven that in the conditions of northeastern Ukraine, the most effective method of nitrogen fertilization of corn is the introduction of anhydrous ammonia at the rate of N150. The yield increase compared to the control variant without fertilizers is 4.81 t/ha or 89.2%. It was established that on average, 16.1 kg of nitrogen is spent on the formation of 1 ton of corn grain when using anhydrous ammonia, 16.8 kg when applying urea, and 18.1 kg when using UAN-32. At the same time, each applied unit of mineral nitrogen in the form of anhydrous ammonia ensures the formation of 67.5 kg of corn grain, urea – 64.1 kg and UAN-32 – 59.3 kg.
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