MOTH BEANS (VIGNA ACONITIFOLIA): QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS AND PROTEIN ISOLATE TECHNOLOGY
Moth beans (Vigna aconitifolia) is a drought-tolerant legume commonly grown in arid and semi-arid regions. Moth beans are rich in protein, ash and B vitamins. However, the chemical composition of moth beans has not been studied in detail due to the lack of processing technologies. Therefore, the chemical composition of moth beans (Vigna aconitifolia) was investigated to determine the effectiveness of their use for obtaining protein isolate. Moth beans are low in lipids (1.8%), high in crude protein (23.5%) and rich in minerals (Mg, Mn, Cu, P and Fe). Provision of the daily norm by minerals of moth beans was for Mg 92.38%, Mn 74.78%, Cu 77.78%, P 71.71% and Fe 70%. The content of essential amino acids was 6.67% and replaceable amino acids was 16.83%. The ratio of essential amino acids to non-replaceable (0.41) is higher than the amount recommended by the World Health Organization. Vegetable protein is an alternative to animal protein in the food industry for dietary nutrition. Until now, moth beans (Vigna aconitifolia) have not been used in the food industry to obtain protein isolate by pH-shifting treatment. The pH value during alkaline-acid extraction was adjusted to the critical values of pH=11 in the first stage and pH=2 in the second stage of extraction to increase the yield of protein isolate. Changes in the amino acid and mineral composition of the protein isolate were not significant compared to moth beans. The protein content of moth beans protein isolate was 90.8%, and the yield of moth beans protein isolate was 21.2%. The obtained protein isolate from moth beans was used in the recipe of minced meat in the ratio of M0 (0%), M1 (5%) and M2 (10%) from the total mass to partially replace fatty pork and onions. Addition of moth beans protein isolate to minced meat increases the yield of the semi-finished product by 6.82% for the M1 sample and by 14.63% for the M2 sample compared to the M0 control. After the analysis of the nutritional value, experimental sample M2 was determined to be the best. The addition of 10% protein isolate from moth beans to the minced meat recipe increased the protein content by 20.5%, the ash content by 10.6%, and reduced the fat content by 118.9% and carbohydrates content by 94.7%, which allowed to attribute minced meat for dietary food products. The energy value did not have significant changes due to the simultaneous increase in protein content and decrease in fat content in dietary minced meat and amounted to 125.91 kcal/100g for sample M2. In general, the content of fatty pork decreased by five times, which had a positive effect on the cholesterol content of the minced meat recipe. The technological properties of fatty pork are fully ensured by its replacement with moth beans protein isolate. Moth beans protein isolate can be used in the technology of various dietary food products, which should be the focus of further research.
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