Keywords: Salmonella; T3SSs effectors; NF-κB signaling pathway; host immune defense; pathogenic mechanism.


Salmonella is an important foodborne pathogen that can evade host immune defense by evolving unique mechanisms. Salmonella manipulate host cell various signaling pathways by delivering specific effectors into target cells to establish infection. The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is an important nuclear transcription factor that regulates the host immune system in Salmonella infection. The Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) and Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2) encode type III secretion systems (T3SSs), effectors that are associated with the NF-κB signaling pathway through regulate host inflammation response. SPI-1 effectors SipA, SopE, SopE2, and SopB all can activate NF-κB signaling pathway to facilitate Salmonella invasion and intracellular carriage. Studies have shown that T3SS1 and/or T3SS2 effectors such as GtgA, GogA and PipA contain two histidine residues and have metalloprotease activity to control Salmonella replication. These zinc metalloproteases redundantly target the NF-κB subunits p65, RelB, and c-Rel, whereas GogA and GtgA only inhibit NF-κB-dependent gene transcription. The T3SS2 effectors SseK1, SseK2, and SseK3 are death domain-containing proteins with N-linked glycosyltransferase characteristics that can inhibit NF-κB activity by inhibiting IκBα phosphorylation in TNF- α-treated 293ET cells. Among them, SseK1 and SseK3 also suppress Salmonella-induced NF-κB activity in macrophages. SseK3-mediated inhibition of the NF-B signaling pathway is not required for protein 32 containing a tripartite E3-ubiquitin ligase motif. In addition, the SPI-2 T3SS effector SpvD inhibits NF-κB activity by preventing nuclear translocation of p65 through interaction with Exportin-2, but this does not affect IκBα degradation, which ultimately leads to systemic Salmonella growth. However, other effectors SptP, AvrA, IpaJ, SspH1, GtgA, GogA, and SPI-2 encoded SseL, SpvB, SseK1, and GogB all can effectively inhibit NF-κB signaling pathway, and contribute to Salmonella intracellular replication and virulence. In this mini-review, we summarize the special mechanism how NF-κB signaling pathway is regulated by Salmonella T3SSs effectors in the persistent infection of Salmonella, which will further elucidate the pathogenesis of Salmonella.


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How to Cite
Liu, Z., Fotin, A. I., Petrov, R. V., Ma, J., & Fotina, T. I. (2023). SALMONELLA INFECTION: INTERPLAY BETWEEN THE T3SSS EFFECTORS AND NF-ΚB SIGNALING PATHWAY. Bulletin of Sumy National Agrarian University. The Series: Veterinary Medicine, (3(62), 3-11.