Evaluation of fiber-flaх varieties for resistance to lodging in the early stages of ontogenesis
The article analyzes the literature and presents the results of three-year studies of the problem of susceptibility of fiber - flax to their lodging, which is observed at different stages of ontogenesis. It is shown that the lodging of plants negatively affects the formation of morphological characteristics of flax, and unstable varieties have a lower content of lignin in the stem during intensive growth and budding, which leads to a significant reduction in seed productivity and sowing conditions. It is shown that increasing the resistance to lodging of flax stalks has an independent significance in breeding, but along with this there is an influence not only of soil and climatic conditions of cultivation, but also a contribution to the variability of genetic characteristics of the variety.In the analysis of correlations between economically valuable traits of flax, it was found that resistant to lodging forms with increased stem diameter are prone to late ripening, and in terms of increasing the fiber content for breeding more suitable thin-stemmed forms with reduced lodging resistance. High coefficients of positive correlation (r = 0.74‒0.91) between resistance to lodging and the number of leaves on the stem were determined. But these correlations are not general, and their level depends only on the characteristics of experimental samples. The patent search for methods for assessing resistance to lodging in the early stages of selection, which was conditionally divided into four groups, is analyzed. Weather conditions, materials and research methods are described. In the course of laboratory experiments the analysis of group of morphological signs of plants is carried out: the general height of a plant; length of the root system, the first internode and subcotyledonary knee; mass of the subcotyledonary knee and root system. Studies to determine the resistance to lodging of varieties of fiber-flax with different levels of manifestation of this feature of long flax were conducted on the 20-th day after full germination. Six varieties of long flax of different ecological and geographical origin and different groups of resistance to lodging were used.
It was found that in flax varieties with different degrees of resistance to lodging in the early stages of ontogenesis changes the manifestation of morphological features in the direction of increasing the length of the first internode and subcotyledonary knee and decreases the overall plant height compared to unstable varieties as a result of response to change. There is no clear pattern between the degree of stability of varieties fiber – flax and the decrease in the mass of the subcotyledonary knee during shading. It is shown that shading of flax plants during research has a negative effect on the length of the root system in the early stages of ontogenesis.
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