Research status and prospect of genes related with resistance to powdery mildew of wheat
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the major grain crops in the world. Wheat powdery mildew is a fungal disease caused by the infection of Blumeria graminis F. sp. tritici. It is one of the most severe wheat diseases globally, seriously affecting the yield and quality of wheat. At present, the main ways to control powdery mildew are the use of fungicides and the cultivation of disease-resistant varieties. The extensive spraying of fungicides causes pesticide residues and environmental pollution. At present, no matter wild type or artificially bred wheat powdery mildew resistant varieties are scarce, so it is urgent to cultivate resistant varieties quickly and efficiently. Traditional cross breeding has a long time and low efficiency. Still, it is a fast and effective way to get disease-resistant sorts by using modern molecular biological means to transfer disease-resistant genes into cultivated varieties. Although the cultivation of resistant varieties is the most economical and effective way to control powdery mildew in wheat, there are some limitations in the cultivation of resistant varieties by introducing resistance genes by conventional means in actual production. With the increase of disease each year, this situation will be more and more unable to meet the needs of wheat genetic improvement. It is urgent to explore a new way of breeding to improve the wheat to powdery mildew lasting broad-spectrum resistance. The disease-resistant breeding needs from cloning in plant and pathogen affinity interactions play a vital role in the study of disease genes and their mechanism of action. At present, in the wheat by manipulating disease genes make infected material gain lasting broad-spectrum resistance is less. In the case of disease genes and mutations after its disease-resistant mechanism are still not clear. So the breeding of resistant varieties need mining and utilization of resistance genes. The paper summarizes the harm and distribution of wheat powdery mildew, the genes resistance mechanism of wheat powdery mildew, and functional analysis, wheat powdery mildew resistance genes in the field of molecular biology research status, and VIGS, RNAi, such as for the prevention and control of wheat powdery mildew, explore new powdery mildew resistance genes and resistance regulation, breeding disease-resistant varieties of wheat provide the feasible scheme.
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