Prospects of practical use of new potatoes state varietal resources in the north-east Forest-Steppe of Ukraine
According to statistic evaluation of the manifestation of signs of the economic suitability of state sort resources of 2019 registration potatoes when growing it in different agro-climatic conditions, a significant advantage of influence of the forest-steppe conditions was determined. Compared to Polesia the increase of yield rose for 4.1 t/ha or 18 % (НІР05 = 2.18, Ffact= 12.65 > F05 = 4.22) and the amount of trade potato for 22.72 ha or 20 % (Ffact = 58.87). There is also a tendency to increase the number of starch from unit of area for – 17 % and the total consumer properties for – 8 %.
However, there is a significant difference in the reduction of storability of products by 45 % and the lack of it’s resistance to macrosporiosis and late blight. It was proved that the yield of varieties for cultivation in the polesia zone by 25.7 % depended on the duration of the growing season (Ffact = 4.14 > F05 = 0.06). The relationship between yield and starch of potatoes in Polesia zone varieties was determined – 23.6 % and in forest-steppe – 17.3 % and starch collection, respectively, 33.6 % and 28.0 %. The dependence of storability of potato which grew in the polesia zone and in forest-steppe from the amount of starch for 15 % was mathematically proved (Ffact = 2.11 > F05 = 0.17) і 11.3 % (Ffact = 1.52 > F05 = 0.24); the dependence of storability on the duration of the growing season in the Forest-Steppe conditions was confirmed(Ffact = 0.66 > F05 = 0.43). In addition, the 12 % of tasting grade of the Forest-Steppe varieties depended on the starch content amount (Ffact = 1.65 > F05 = 0.22). According to the results of the regression analysis, mathematical models have been developed to predict yields, culinary and consumer properties, and the storability of new potato varieties under different growing conditions. The project of a conveyor for the consumption of fresh product in summer period with the involvement of varieties of early ripeness in the Forest-Steppe was presented: 80 days after planting – Sanibel, 90 days after planting – Medison, Paroli, 95 days after planting – Bazalia, Bernina, 100 days after planting – Donata, in the Polesia zone ‒ 80 days after planting – Sanibel, 90 days after planting – Paroli, 95 days after planting –Bazalia, 100 days after planting – Medison, Bernina, Donata. By distribution of varieties by predicted high content of phytonutrients there were bred varieties with red skin and creamy flesh – Bazalia and Sanibel, by high content with yellow flesh – Baltic Rosa and moderate content with white flesh – Oleksandrit, Fotynia, Ricarda.
Introduction of new varieties with certain high adaptive potential of storability and content of bioactive compounds in potatoes will provide growth of potato production in the conditions of the northeast forest-steppe and increase its competitiveness in the domestic and foreign markets and will solve the problem of year-round consumption of fresh quality products.
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