Intensity of growth and payment of feed of pigs for different methods of castration
The paper compares the intensity of growth in different age periods, uncastrated and castrated boars with the help of classical surgical and immunological castration. It was found that non-cast pigs had a better feed conversion during the growing-up period with almost equal growth rate. During fattening, the highest intensity of growth until the age of 120 days had uncut casts, and then immunological and surgical castrates. From the 121st to the 165th day, the highest intensity of growth was detected by immunological castrates, further unconstrained sockets and the least intensively growing surgical castrates. During the whole feeding period, immunocastrated males grew most intensively. During the fattening, a difference in growth rate was detected between surgical castrates, immunocastrates, and non-castrated boars. During the fattening period, the feed was best paid for the gain. Immuno-castrated animals that consumed 0.09 kg less 2.8 kg less feed compared to non-cast animals and 11.4% compared to surgical castrates. The quality index had the highest value in immunologically castrated animals 126.7 points, in boars it was 4.2 points or 3.3% lower, and in surgical castrates was 118.3 points, which is less than in immuno castrates by 8, 4 points or 6.6%. Non-castrated piglets during the growing season had better feed conversion with almost equal growth rate. The relative increments in different periods of life in surgical castrates, immunocastrates and boils varied, and were virtually equal throughout the life span. There are no dependence of preservation and growth rate of piglets in the feeding period has been established.
2. Goldobin, M.I., L.I. and Toboev, G.M., 1995. Otkorm hryachkov [Fattening boars] Svinovodstvo, issue 4, рp. 20-22
3. Ivchenko, A.N., 2006. Rost, razvitie i myasnyie kachestva hryachkov, borovkov i svinok pri otkorme ih na myaso [Growth, development and meat qualities of boars, hogs and pigs when fattening them for meat] Avtoreferat dissertatsii na soiskanie uchenoy stepeni kandidata selskohozyaystvennyih nauk Belgorod. p. 19
4. Mikyalenas, A. and Tarvaynis, A., 1988. Effektivnost vyiraschivaniya i vkusovaya otsenka kachestva myasa i myasnyih produktov hryachkov, svinok i kastratov [The effectiveness of cultivation and taste assessment of the quality of meat and meat products of boars, gilts and castrates]. Problemyi sozdaniya vyisokoproduktivnyih liniy i tipov sviney. Moskva. рp. 53-54.
5. Minekonomiky Ukrainy, 2014. Svyni dlia zaboiu. Tekhnichni umovy. [Pigs for slaughter. Specifications] Natsionalnyi standart Ukrainy DSTU 4718: 2007. Kyiv.
6. Povod, M., Kravchenko, O. and Hetia, A., 2017. Vplyv riznykh sposobiv kastruvannia na zabiini ta miasni yakosti tush svynei [Influence of different casting methods on slaughter and meat quality of pig carcasses]. Prybutkove svynarstvo, zhovten, issue 11, рр.32-34.
7. Povod M., Kravchenko O., Hetia A., Samokhina Y. and Shpetnyi M. 2017 Intensyvnist rostu khirurhichno kastrovanykh ta ne kastrovanykh hibrydnykh porosiat v umovakh promyslovoho vyrobnytstva svynyny [Growth rate of surgically castrated and non-castrated hybrid pigs in industrial pork production] Visnyk Sumskoho natsionalnoho ahrarnoho universytetu Seriia «Tvarynytstvo», issue 7 (33), pp.151-154
8. Pohodnya G.S. and Mochalovskiy A.N. 1986 Zavisimost prirosta zhivoy massyi hryachkov ot metodov kastratsii [Dependence of the gain in live weight of boars on castration methods] Informatsionnyiy listok #50. Belgorod. p. 4
9. Stoikov A. 1987 Kachestvo myasa otkormochnyih hryachkov, borovkov i svinok. [The quality of meat of fattening boars, hogs and pigs] Zhivotnovodcheskie nauki NRB. issue 2. pp. 35-40
10. Filatov A., and Simolkin L. 2003 Otkormochnyie i myasnyie kachestva hryachkov i svinok na kontrolnom vyiraschivanii [Feeding and meat qualities of boars and pigs in control cultivation.] Svinovodstvo. issue 4. - p. 17
11. American veterinary medical association. 2013 Literature Review on the Welfare Implications of Swine Castration. May 29., p.5
12. Andersson K, Brunius C, Zamaratskaia G and Lundström K. 2011 Early vaccination with Improvac: effects on performance and behaviour of male pigs. Anim 2011;FirstView: pp.1-9
13. Daxenberger A, Hageleit M, Kraetzl W, Lange I, Claus R, Bizec B and Meyer H 2001 Suppression of androstenone in entire male pigs by anabolic preparations. Livestock Production Science 69: pp. 139-144
14. European Union. Council Directive 2008/120/EC of 18 December 2008 laying down minimum standards for the protection of pigs. OJ L 47, 18.2.2009
15. Frieden L., Looft C. and Tholen E. 2011 Breeding for reduced boar taint. Lohman Information 2011, Vol.46(1): pp.21-27
16. Moorea K.L., Mullanc B.P., Dunsheaa and F.R. 2017 Boar taint, meat quality and fail rate in entire male pigs and male pigs immunized against gonadotrophin releasing factor as related to body weight and feeding regime. Meat Science. Volume 125, March 2017, pp. 95–101
17. Prunier A., Bonneau M., von Borell EH, Cinotti S., Gunn M., Fredriksen B., Giersing M., Morton DB., Tuyttens FAM and Velarde A. 2006 A review of the welfare consequences of surgical castration in piglets and the evaluation of non-surgical methods. Anim Welf. 2006;15: pp. 89-277
18. Latorre M. A. 2004 The effects of gender and slaughter weight on the growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality characteristics of heavy pigs Journal ofAnimal Science. 2004. Vol. 82. pp. 526–533
19. Wesoly R, Jungbluth I, Stefanski V and Weiler U (2015) Pre-slaughter conditions influence skatole and androstenone in adipose tissue of boars Meat Science Volume 99, January 2015, pp. 60–67