Fattening and meat qualities of young pigs of different genealogical lines and inbreed differentiation according to some evaluators
The results of evaluation of fattening and meat qualities of young pigs of large white breed of different genealogical lines and intrabreed differentiation according to the B. Tyler index, as well as the economic efficiency of their use are presented. The study was conducted in the conditions of «Agro-Elita» LLC, Dnipropetrovsk region, «Dnipro» meat-packing plant and livestock laboratory of the Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS. The work was performed according to the research program of NAAS №30 "Pig breeding". Control fattening of young pigs was carried out in the farm according to the "Methods for assessing boars and sows by the quality of offspring in breeding plants and breeding breeders" (M.D. Berezovsky, I.V. Khat’ko, 2005). Evaluation of young pigs for fattening and meat qualities was carried out taking into account the following indicators: average daily live weight gain for the period of fattening from 30 to 100 kg, age of live weight 100 kg, length of chilled carcass, fat thickness at 6-7 thoracic vertebrae, the area of the "muscle eye", the mass of the posterior third of the cooled carcass. Comprehensive assessment of animals of the main herd was performed according to the index of fattening and meat qualities of their offspring (B. Tyler index) (quoted by P.A. Vashchenko, 2019). It was found that young pigs of the controlled herd at the age of 100 kg, fat thickness at the level of 6-7 thoracic vertebrae and the length of the chilled carcass exceed the minimum requirements of the elite class by an average of 5.47%. Animals of the Slavutych line outnumber their Snizhka and Chingiza peers in terms of average daily live weight gain by 1.97-7.00%, age of 100 kg live weight - 2.97-4.32%, fat thickness at the level of 6-7 thoracic vertebra - 10.48-16.14%, the area of the "muscle cell" - 10.96-10.69%, the weight of the rear third of the cooled carcass - 0.95-2.85%, a comprehensive index of fattening and meat qualities (B. Tyler index) - 8.47-17.65%. A significant difference with a probability of P <0.05-0.001 was found between animals of class M + and M- on the average daily gain of live weight during the period of fattening from 30 to 100 kg (33.7-45.0 g), the area of «muscle eyes» (by 1.0–4.8 cm2), complex index of fattening and meat qualities (B. Tyler index) (by 17.55–43.68 points). By weight of the rear third of the cooled carcass, young pigs of class M+ outperformed peers of class M- by 0.6 kg (td = 3.52; P <0.01). Lower indicators of "age of live weight of 100 kg (3.6-10.2 days) and "fat thickness at the level of 6-7 vertebrae"(2.8-5.9 mm) are characterized by young pigs with a complex index fattening and meat qualities ranged from 174.12 to 193.06 points. The maximum increase in additional products on the indicator "average daily live weight gain for the period of fattening from 30 to 100 kg, g" "was obtained from young pigs of the Slavutych genealogical line (+3.22%) and the distribution class according to B. Tyler's index M+ (+4,19%). The cost of additional products received from animals of these groups is +777.06 - +1011.14 UAH/head.
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