Parameters of the main features of productivity in local types of domestic breeds of Ukraine
The breed, as a dynamic structure that combines intra-breed and local (zonal) types, tested lines and families, is constantly on the move for changes in breeding traits. Local types have the characteristic features of a set of economically useful features of productivity, exterior, reproduction. A study was conducted to monitor the milk productivity of cows within the types, on two local types of Ukrainian black-and-white (Kyiv, Kharkiv), four types of Ukrainian red (Eastern, Western, Central, Taurian) and six types of Ukrainian red-and-white (Kharkiv, Kyiv, Vinnytsia, Cherkasy, Bukovyna, Pryluky) dairy breeds. The study included indicators: the number of females stock, the structure of types by calving, milk productivity and live weight of cows in the middle and the selection nucleus of firstborn and adult cows. According to the number, it should be noted the local types of Ukrainian black-and-white and Ukrainian red-and-white dairy breeds. The average share of cows by type is 54%. The number of breeding animals in the best breeding farms exceeds 3 thousand heads. The share of firstborns in the structure of types is high and ranges from 19,5% in the Western to 60,4% in the Taurian types. Milk yield in local types has a wide intergroup differentiation. Thus, on average by type among firstborn and adult cows of milk yield has the following fluctuations, which are respectively 3782,6 kg… 8784,3 kg; 2980,0 kg… 8218,3 kg; 4737,2 kg… 9193,7 kg. Limits on milk productivity of a selection nucleus for the corresponding periods are within: 4562,5 kg… 9616,1 kg; 4835,0 kg… 9109,8 kg and 5600,0 kg… 9981,5 kg. The best milk yield were observed in cows of Kyiv and Kharkiv local types of Ukrainian black-and-white and Ukrainian red-and-white dairy breeds, while in terms of fat and protein content in milk of cows of Taurian and Central local types of Ukrainian red dairy. The highest live weight of cows is observed in adult cows, where the best populations of types have an index of more than 600 kg.
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