PHYSICS IN TECHNOLOGY: USE OF FORCES
Force is one of the fundamental concepts of mechanics. In physics, force is a vector quantity that is a measure of the effect on a given body from other bodies or fields. In mechanics, force is a quantitative measure of the interaction of bodies, the cause of deformations of bodies and the accelerations that are provided to them. The disputes surrounding the definition of force are still ongo-ing. This is due to the difficulties of uniting in one definition of forces that are different in their nature and character. In technology, forces are the driving forces that do some work. To carry out work, these forces must be transformed, changed their direction, decom-posed into components or added to other forces. For the decomposition of forces, various kinds of gearboxes, transmission mecha-nisms using belts, chains, and the like are used. To increase force or change its direction in technology, mechanisms are used that make it easier for people to work. It is customary to distinguish eight simple mechanisms, among which there is an inclined plane, a wedge, a screw, a lever, a gate, a block, a wheel and a piston. The source of force in technical devices, as a rule, is the engine. Today there are a fairly large number of engines, which are usually classified according to the type of energy that drives this engine (steam, electric, pneumatic, hydraulic or water, muscle, etc.) or according to the principle of operation (internal combustion, jet, etc.). When doing any work, a situation often arises when the power of one engine is not enough to perform this work. In this case, it is sometimes more expedient to manufacture a single mechanism with one or more engines capable of developing the required force, instead of adding the force of several separate mechanisms, since in the latter case it becomes necessary to accurately synchronize the move-ment of the sources of forces. This article may be needed by students of physics and engineering specialties when studying additional material on physics, and will also be of interest to a wide range of readers interested in physics and technology.
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