Sanitary evaluation of fishes fished from the ponds of the Sumy region
Introduction. Fisheries are a traditional industry in Ukraine, started more than 300 years ago. There are more than 1 million hectares of fisheries in the country, including about 200,000 hectares of ponds. The main breeding sites are various carp breeds, white and mottled silver carp, white cupid. Fish and fishery products are important in human nutrition and make up a large part of their diet. In many countries of the world, fish is the main focus of the food industry.
The goal of the work. The purpose of our research was to carry out a sanitary evaluation of fish caught from the sums of Sumy region.
Materials and methods of research. These studies were conducted under the conditions of the Department of Veterinary Expertise, Microbiology, Zohygiene and Safety and Quality of Livestock Products of Sumy National Agrarian University and in the fisheries of Sumy region.
Selection and preparation of fish samples for research were carried out according to GOST 7631-85. For the study used fish from the carp family, which are most common in the fishery farms of Sumy region.
Results of research and discussion. When conducting organoleptic studies in sample No. 1, the following indicators were found: mouth closed; eyes clear, pale, convex with transparent cornea; cheeks and jaws pale; gill caps tightly against gills; gills with viscous, clear and transparent mucus, bright red, with a slight odor of fresh fish moisture, mucus in a small amount, viscous and transparent, odorless or with a slight odor of dampness; scaly shiny, clean; fins of lifelong appearance and color, without damage, the back is dense, elastic, the fossa from the pressure of the finger quickly, almost immediately disappears; the anal opening is closed, which corresponds to the indicators of good-quality fish; and in sample No. 2, the mouth is open; eyes sunken, dull, pale pink or pale red, with dull cornea; cheeks and jaws pale pink; gill caps do not fit snugly, move away from gills; on the gills dull mucus, mucus much; scales dim; fins covered with thick turbid mucus, at the base of the fins mucus pink or reddish; the back is soft, the fossa from the pressure of the finger slowly disappears; the anal opening is slightly swollen, pink-red, which indicates the quality of fish of dubious freshness. Meat toxicity determination of all fish species studied was performed using Tetrachymena pyriformis infusions. The absence of inhibitory effect on the survival of the infusions, their growth and behavioral response, the degree of mobility, morphological parameters. This testified to the absence of toxicity of all tested fish meat samples. After 3 hours the infusions were alive and mobile. Also, by determining the level of histamine, we found that it was within normal limits. Thus, the histamine content in sample No. 1 was 20,5 ± 3,1 and in sample No. 2, respectively, 22,4 ± 5,5 mg/kg.
Conclusions and prospects for further research: 1. In the study of fish samples caught from the sums of Sumy region it was found that by organoleptic and physicochemical indicators, sample No. 1 corresponded to good-quality fresh fish, and by carrying out the study of sample No. 2, the results obtained were characteristic of fish of dubious freshness.
- The presence of live helminth larvae in humans and animals was not detected in all of the samples of chilled fish we selected for veterinary examination.
- Microscopy of specimens from specimens No. 1 revealed no microflora; drugs were stained poorly, which is characteristic of fresh fish, and in the preparation of sample No. 2 from the surface layers in one of the fields of view revealed 30-35 diplococci.
In the future it is planned to carry out monitoring of the veterinary and sanitary evaluation of fish caught from the Sumy basin.
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