Diversion by lines in different stages of exclusion and consolidation of Ukrainian Red Cattle Breed
The breeding process of line breeding are of great importance in, so it is advisable to analyze at different stages of removal and consolidation of the Ukrainian red dairy breed. Common zootechnical methods (individual accounting of dairy productivity), laboratory (determination of quality composition of milk), retrospective analysis (indicators for the whole period of use of animals), variational-statistical method (determination of parameters of traits) were used to perform the study. The removal of the Ukrainian red dairy breed was carried out with the involvement of the gene pool of Angler, Red Danish and Holstein breeds, and the use of in-line selection was of limited nature. In addition to the general trend, which explains the progressive effect of the breeding process, identified some variants of line compatibility, which differed in milk and fat content. Thus, the in-line selection of the related group of Cirrus, the Ladny line contributed to the increase of fat content in milk of first-born cows in stages I, II and III, and the Elevation, Starbuck, Chifa lines - the level of milk yield in the IV and V stages of breeding and consolidation. The most effective method of increasing the variability of breeding characteristics of dairy cattle is interlinear breeding. Intermittent selection was intensively used in the breeding process, the results of which were constantly analyzed to identify the best line combinations and their subsequent repetition. It was established that in the first three stages (І-ІІІ) of Ukrainian red dairy breed removal the selection of lines of red steppe (maternal) and related groups of angler (parent) breeds prevailed. Most of these crosses were characterized by an average milk yield of 3087 kg (Colombo × Visit) to 4839 kg (Corbiza × Ladny) and high fat content in milk - 4.07% (Colombo × Ladny) and 4.41% (Cirrus × Breeze). The peculiarity of the III, IV, V stages of breeding was the involvement of extensions of Holstein breed lines in the breeding process. This contributed to an increase in milk yield (5082 kg), but at the same time led to a decrease in fat content in milk (3.72%), in particular when selecting the Wisconsin lineage boogers for cows of the related Corbiza group. Interlinear selection affects the productive and reproductive features of the Ukrainian red dairy breed. As a result of the use for the selection of related groups of Angler breed (I-III stages), there was an increase in milk fat in animals, and involvement in the breeding process of lines of the Holstein breed contributed to the increase of milk yield (IV-V stages).
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