Influence of the factors of the variant of combination of breeds and duration of the lactation period on reproductive qualities of sows
In the conditions of the commodity enterprise the influence of variants of breed combinations of sows and duration of the lactation period on their reproductive qualities was investigated 2 technological groups of sows with the usual (28 days) and shortened (21 days) lactation period were formed. Each of the obtained groups was divided according to genetic affiliation into control L♀×LW♂ (landrace×large white) and experimental LW♀×L♂ (large white×landrace) groups. It was found that the best rate of fertility was observed in animals with a variant of the breed combination L♀×LW♂ with a reduced duration of the suckling period. At the duration of the suckling period of 28 days, the groups of animals L♀×LW♂ and LW♀×L♂ have lower rates of 0.08 and 0.16 heads, respectively. The ratio of sexes in all studied groups was practically at the same level with fluctuations towards boars in the range of 50.33%–50.84%. The largest nest weight at birth was observed in animals of the group L♀×LW ♂ (28 days) with an excess of this indicator in the range of 0.69–1.17%. The weight of piglets during weaning ranged from 5.42 to 7.73 kg. At the same time the advantage of groups with longer duration of the sucking period is observed. Analyzing the dynamics of the average daily growth of piglets, it was found that the best assimilation of feed was observed in animals of group LW ♀×L♂ (28 days) at the level of 235.05 g, which is 0.29% less than animals with a combination of breeds L♀×LW♂ (28 days), by 13.58% (p <0.001) – L♀×LW♂ (21 days), by 13.45% (p <0.001) – LW♀×L♂ (21 days). A similar trend is observed with the absolute growth rate, where the most important are the animals of the experimental group with the traditional duration of the suckling period LW♀×L♂ at 6.35 kg, and the smallest animals of the group L♀×LW♂ (21 days) – 4.06 kg . The largest number of piglets was weaned in sows with a variant of the breed combination L♀×LW♂, with a reduced suckling period. The best preservation was observed in animals with a shortened suckling period of the LW♀×L♂ group at the level of 93.55%, the rest of the animals had lower values in the range of 0.03–2.93%. From the obtained data, we concluded that the factor of the variant of the combination of breeds does not affect the indicators: the number of piglets at birth, the number of piglets at weaning, safety and nest weight of piglets during weaning. At the same time, a statistically significant effect of the duration of the suckling period on the nest weight of piglets during weaning was found at the level of 67.81%. According to a comprehensive assessment of reproductive qualities between groups of animals, no significant difference was found in this indicator, the difference was in the range of 0.08–0.3 points.
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