Improving the productivity of domestic meat and egg chickens
The work was performed on meat and egg chickens of domestic selection, breeding work with which was carried out in the DDSP NAAN. With prolonged breeding "in itself" by methods of mass selection, the economically useful characteristics of meat and egg chickens of domestic selection have deteriorated somewhat. In this regard, an urgent need arose to improve the main productive characteristics of meat and egg chickens by crossing highly productive crosses of foreign selection with poultry. Crossings of meat and egg chickens with males of the parental form of the Cobb-500 cross significantly increased the live weight of F1 hybrid offspring, the weight of eggs at 52 weeks of age, but decreased egg production compared to the initial base population. Hybridization of meat and egg chickens with roosters of the Ross-308 cross only increased the growth energy of F1 young stock up to 10 weeks of age. Breeding F1 hybrids "in itself" and reverse crossing of F1 females with over-eaten males of the "Cobb-500" cross contributed to an increase in live weight in F2 offspring, egg weight, but at the same time reduced egg production by 7.7-10.1 eggs (or 8.19-11.03%) compared to the original maternal form. Breeding "Ross" F1 birds "in itself" and reverse crossing of hybrid F1 females with roasted roosters of the Ross-308 cross helped to improve the live weight of F2 offspring by 5.21-11.89%, egg production by 6.2-7.4 eggs in comparison with meat and egg hens of the base population. When poultry of different genotypic groups were combined, a heterogeneous subpopulation was created, the productive characteristics of which improved in comparison with previous generations (F9-F11) of the original basic population. In comparison with previous generations, the live weight of poultry increased in young (males by 100-310 g, chickens by 50-180 g) and adult (males by 130-730 g, chickens by 150-650 g), the weight of eggs in different age periods, egg production (for the initial hen by 14.5-27.2 eggs, for the average hen - by 14.3-26.2 eggs), the viability of young stock (by 5.0-7.3%) and adult livestock (by 5.5-7.6%). The reproductive qualities of the chickens of the created heterogeneous population were good.
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