Economic useful features of different genealogical bee formations of the carpathian breed
Among the factors that determine the progress of mankind, a significant place belongs to selection of breeding and productive qualities of bees. Opportunities to increase productivity and the viability of bee colonies by improving their hereditary traits depends on learning of the evolution and biology of bees. In this case, it should be noted that an important role in improving the productivity of apiaries is the use of interbreed and interlinear hybrids. In view of the above, the purpose of the study was to evaluate peacefulness, varroatosis resistance, strength, winter hardiness and hygienic properties of bee families of different intra-linear crosses of the Carpathian bee population. Studies have been conducted on bees of various genealogical formations of the Carpathian breeds in private apiaries in the village Navariya and Brody town in Lviv region. For experimental studies, 6 groups of 10 bee families in each were formed: I - control group - local bees of the Carpathian population (type "Vuchkivska" - 10 bee families); ІІ - experimental group - inbred group ♀UA3-5- 9-15.112- 2018 x ♂ UA3-5- 9-15.112-2018 (♀ micropopulation "915" x ♂ micropopulation "915" – 11 bee families); ІІІ - experimental group - selection cross ♀UA3-65- 2019 х ♂ UA3-5- 9-15.112- 2018 (line "Sto" x ♂ micropopulation "915" - 10 bee families; IV - research group - selection cross ♀UA3-5- 35-2019 x ♂ UA3-5- 9-15.112-2018 (♀ Vuchkivska x ♂ micropopulation "915" - 10 bee families); V - experimental group - selection cross ♀AE99- 307 / 67- 2018 x ♂ UA3-5- 9-15.112-2018 (♀ line "Troisek 07" x ♂ micropopulation "915" – 10 bee families); VI - experimental group - selection cross ♀G. Macha ST-07 x ♂ UA3-5- 9- 15.112-2018 (♀ micropopulation of G. Macha x ♂ micropopulation "915" - 10 bee families). It is established that between bees of different intrabreed crosses of the Carpathian population there were some differences in bee lost rates, total costs feed for the winter and per 1 kg of bees. The least food for the winter was consumed by bee families of the sixth group, but per 1 kg of bees the lowest results were observed in bees of the third group. The best winter hardiness was characterized by bees obtained from combination of females and males of the micropopulation "915", and by hygienic behavior after 12 and 24 hours after brood damage - bee colonies of the second and fifth groups, respectively. By resistance to varroatosis were the best bees breeding cross ♀UA3-65- 2019 x ♂ UA3-5- 9-15.112-2018. Inbred cross micropopulation "915" bee families were the strongest before winter and the weakest - cross G. Macha bee families. Most crosses belonged to the quiet peaceful and only bee families of the local Carpathian population and cross ♀UA3-5- 35-2019 x ♂ UA3-5- 9-15.112-2018 were marked by malevolence.
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