Keywords: Cows, postpartum period, fertilization, homeostatic potential, metabolic syndrome


To find out the state of individual homeostatic parameters of the body of cows on the 3-7th day after calving and based on them to develop prognostic criteria for reproductive function within 120 days of lactation. To assess the metabolic status of animals in cows of the Holstein breed with a productivity of 7200 kg according to the previous lactation and in the early postpartum period, blood serum was taken. The blood serum was determined by the content of total protein, globulins, albumin, the activity of enzymes: ALAT and ASAT, AP, the concentration of urea, creatinine, total lipoproteins, glucose, carotene, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, magnesium, iron according to generally accepted methods using automatic and semiautomatic biochemical analyzers. The level of vitamins A and E in blood serum samples was determined by high performance liquid chromatography, and cobalt, manganese, copper and zinc were carried out using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Homeostatic indicators were compared between a group of cows that became pregnant during 120 days of lactation and a group of infertile and culled animals during the indicated period. Received digital material processed by methods of variation statistics using the SPSS Data editor 17.0 version according to the Tukey's test with Bonferroni correction. In infertile and culled cows during 120 days of lactation, for 3–7 days after calving, a higher serum globulin content of 17.1% (p≤0.05) was observed, which is due to the development of inflammation, which confirms the decrease in the Veltman test by 28,6% (p≤0.05) relative to cows that became pregnant up to 77.2 ± 5.35 (63–106 days). Increased AcAT activity by 18% (p≤0.05), higher potassium levels by 14.4% (p≤0.01), and sodium on the contrary by 20.6% (p≤0.01) in sick animals reflect consequences of the inflammatory process in the body. Thus, in sick animals there is a violation of homeostatic potential due to the development of dysproteinemia, electrolyte imbalance and hyperenzymemia, which indicates the occurrence of metabolic syndrome.


1. Aleri, J. W., Hine, B. C., Pyman, M. F., Mansell, P. D., Wales, W. J., Mallard, B., & Fisher, A. D. (2016). Periparturient immunosuppression and strategies to improve dairy cow health during the periparturient period. Research in veterinary science, 108, 8–17.
2. Barletta, R. V., Maturana Filho, M., Carvalho, P. D., Del Valle, T. A., Netto, A. S., Rennó, F. P., Mingoti, R. D., Gandra, J. R., Mourão, G. B., Fricke, P. M., Sartori, R., Madureira, E. H., & Wiltbank, M. C. (2017). Association of changes among body condition score during the transition period with NEFA and BHBA concentrations, milk production, fertility, and health of Holstein cows. Theriogenology, 104, 30–36.
3. Braga Paiano, R., Becker Birgel, D., & Harry Birgel Junior, E. (2019). Uterine Involution and Reproductive Performance in Dairy Cows with Metabolic Diseases. Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 9(3), 93.
4. Brodzki, P., Kostro, K., Brodzki, A., Wawron, W., Marczuk, J., & Kurek, Ł. (2015). Inflammatory cytokines and acutephase proteins concentrations in the peripheral blood and uterus of cows that developed endometritis during early postpart um. Theriogenology, 84(1), 11–18.
5. Couto Serrenho, R., DeVries, T. J., Duffield, T. F., & LeBlanc, S. J. (2021). Graduate Student Literature Review: What do we know about the effects of clinical and subclinical hypocalcemia on health and performance of dairy cows?. Journal of dairy science, 104(5), 6304–6326.
6. da Silva, D. C., Fernandes, B. D., Dos Santos Lima, J. M., Rodrigues, G. P., Dias, D. L. B., de Oliveira Souza, E. J., & Filho, M. A. M. (2019). Prevalence of subclinical hypocalcemia in dairy cows in the Sousa city micro-region, Paraíba state. Tropical animal health and production, 51(1), 221–227.
7. Dahiya, S., Kumari, S., Rani, P., Onteru, S. K., & Singh, D. (2018). Postpartum uterine infection & ovarian dysfunction. The Indian journal of medical research, 148(Suppl), S64–S70.
8. Daros, R. R., Hötzel, M. J., Bran, J. A., LeBlanc, S. J., & von Keyserlingk, M. A. G. (2017). Prevalence and risk factors for transition period diseases in grazing dairy cows in Brazil. Preventive veterinary medicine, 145, 16–22.
9. Dervishi, E., & Ametaj, B. N. (2018). Milk fever in dairy cows is preceded by activation of innate immunity and alterations in carbohydrate metabolism prior to disease occurrence. Research in veterinary science, 117, 167–177.
10. Dervishi, E., Zhang, G., Hailemariam, D., Dunn, S. M., & Ametaj, B. N. (2016). Occurrence of retained placenta is preceded by an inflammatory state and alterations of energy metabolism in transition dairy cows. Journal of animal science and biotechnology, 7, 26.
11. Dubuc, J., & Denis-Robichaud, J. (2017). A dairy herd-level study of postpartum diseases and their association with reproductive performance and culling. Journal of dairy science, 100(4), 3068–3078.
12. Esposito, G., Raffrenato, E., Lukamba, S. D., Adnane, M., Irons, P. C., Cormican, P., Tasara, T., & Chapwanya, A. (2020). Characterization of metabolic and inflammatory profiles of transition dairy cows fed an energy-restricted diet. Journal of animal science, 98(1), skz391.
13. Fernandez-Novo, A., Pérez-Garnelo, S. S., Villagrá, A., Pérez-Villalobos, N., & Astiz, S. (2020). The Effect of Stress on Reproduction and Reproductive Technologies in Beef Cattle-A Review. Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 10(11), 2096.
14. Goff, J. P., Hohman, A., & Timms, L. L. (2020). Effect of subclinical and clinical hypocalcemia and dietary cationanion difference on rumination activity in periparturient dairy cows. Journal of dairy science, 103(3), 2591–2601.
15. Groeger, S., Canelas Raposo, J., Bruckmaier, R. M., & Gross, J. J. (2018). Prevalence of subclinical ketosis and production diseases in dairy cows in Central and South America, Africa, Asia, Australia, New Zealand, and Eastern Europe. Translational animal science, 3(1), 84–92.
16. Howard, P., Laven, L. J., & Laven, R. A. (2022). A pilot monitoring strategy for post-partum disease in an Australian dairy herd. New Zealand veterinary journal, 70(3), 149–158.
17. Humer, E., Khol-Parisini, A., Metzler-Zebeli, B. U., Gruber, L., & Zebeli, Q. (2016). Alterations of the Lipid Metabolome in Dairy Cows Experiencing Excessive Lipolysis Early Postpartum. PloS one, 11(7), e0158633.
18. Klevenhusen, F., Humer, E., Metzler-Zebeli, B., Podstatzky-Lichtenstein, L., Wittek, T., & Zebeli, Q. (2015). Metabolic Profile and Inflammatory Responses in Dairy Cows with Left Displaced Abomasum Kept under Small-Scaled Farm Conditions. Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 5(4), 1021–1033.
19. Manimaran, A., Kumaresan, A., Jeyakumar, S., Mohanty, T. K., Sejian, V., Kumar, N., Sreela, L., Prakash, M. A., Mooventhan, P., Anantharaj, A., & Das, D. N. (2016). Potential of acute phase proteins as predictor of postpartum uterine infections during transition period and its regulatory mechanism in dairy cattle. Veterinary world, 9(1), 91–100.
20. Marc, S., Kirovski, D., Mircu, C., Hutu, I., Otavă, G., Paul, C., Boldura, O. M., & Tulcan, C. (2018). Serum Protein Electrophoretic Pattern in Neonatal Calves Treated with Clinoptilolite. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 23(6), 1278.
21. Martens, H., Leonhard-Marek, S., Röntgen, M., & Stumpff, F. (2018). Magnesium homeostasis in cattle: absorption and excretion. Nutrition research reviews, 31(1), 114–130.
22. Martín-Tereso, J., ter Wijlen, H., van Laar, H., & Verstegen, M. W. (2014). Peripartal calcium homoeostasis of multiparous dairy cows fed rumen-protected rice bran or a lowered dietary cation/anion balance diet before calving. Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition, 98(4), 775–784.
23. Puppel, K., Gołębiewski, M., Solarczyk, P., Grodkowski, G., Slósarz, J., Kunowska-Slósarz, M., Balcerak, M., Przysucha, T., Kalińska, A., & Kuczyńska, B. (2019). The relationship between plasma β-hydroxybutyric acid and conjugated linoleic acid in milk as a biomarker for early diagnosis of ketosis in postpartum Polish Holstein-Friesian cows. BMC veterinary research, 15(1), 367.
24. Reshalaitihan, M., & Hanada, M. (2019). Influence of calving difficulty on dry matter intake immediately after calving of dairy cows. Animal science journal = Nihon chikusan Gakkaiho, 90(4), 539–546.
25. Ribeiro, E. S., Gomes, G., Greco, L. F., Cerri, R. L. A., Vieira-Neto, A., Monteiro, P. L. J., Jr, Lima, F. S., Bisinotto, R. S., Thatcher, W. W., & Santos, J. E. P. (2016). Carryover effect of postpartum inflammatory diseases on developmental biology and fertility in lactating dairy cows. Journal of dairy science, 99(3), 2201–2220.
26. Sundrum A. (2015). Metabolic Disorders in the Transition Period Indicate that the Dairy Cows' Ability to Adapt is Overstressed. Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 5(4), 978–1020.
27. Tsiamadis, V., Banos, G., Panousis, N., Kritsepi-Konstantinou, M., Arsenos, G., & Valergakis, G. E. (2016). Genetic parameters of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and potassium serum concentrations during the first 8 days after calving in Holstein cows. Journal of dairy science, 99(7), 5535–5544.
28. Wankhade, P. R., Manimaran, A., Kumaresan, A., Jeyakumar, S., Ramesha, K. P., Sejian, V., Rajendran, D., & Varghese, M. R. (2017). Metabolic and immunological changes in transition dairy cows: A review. Veterinary world, 10(11), 1367–1377.
29. Weber, J., Zenker, M., Köller, G., Fürll, M., & Freick, M. (2019). Clinical Chemistry Investigations in Recumbent and Healthy German Holstein Cows After the Fifth Day in Milk. Journal of veterinary research, 63(3), 383–390.
30. Zandkarimi, F., Vanegas, J., Fern, X., Maier, C. S., & Bobe, G. (2018). Metabotypes with elevated protein and lipid catabolism and inflammation precede clinical mastitis in prepartal transition dairy cows. Journal of dairy science, 101(6), 5531–5548.
How to Cite
DopaV. О. (2023). PROGNOSTIC VALUE OF INDICATORS OF HOMEOSTASIS IN COWS 3-7 DAYS AFTER CALVING. Bulletin of Sumy National Agrarian University. The Series: Veterinary Medicine, (4(63), 37-42.