Keywords: pancreatitis, pancreas, laboratory diagnosis, ultrasound examination, dogs


An analysis of the diagnostic features of pancreatitis in dogs was carried out. The diagnosis was made based on the results of a clinical examination, laboratory blood analysis, and a survey ultrasound examination of the organs of the abdominal cavity, including the pancreas, was performed. It has been established that acute pancreatitis occurs more often than chronic pancreatitis and is accompanied by anorexia, vomiting, pain on palpation of the cranial part of the abdomen, dehydration and diarrhea. The disease often occurs in various combinations with cholecystitis and duodenitis and in some cases is accompanied by acute renal failure. During the differential diagnosis of acute pancreatitis, which should be comprehensive, a thorough history collection, laboratory diagnostics and ultrasound examination should be carried out, which allows detecting an increase in the size of the pancreas, irregularity of its shape and hypoechogenicity. In chronic pancreatitis, ultrasonography reveals a decrease in the size of the gland, unevenness of echogenicity and expansion of its ducts. The content of total protein in animals with various forms of complications of acute pancreatitis probably differs from the indicators of healthy animals. In case of complications of acute renal failure, it is probably lower. The cholesterol level in animals with pancreatitis is 72-79% higher. There is no probable difference for various complications of pancreatitis. Indicators of the renal complex in sick animals (concentration of urea, creatinine) both with acute isolated pancreatitis and with various complications probably did not differ from the indicators of healthy dogs, only with complications of acute renal failure hyperazotemia develops. A probable increase in the activity of α-amylase is observed both in isolated and during complicated pancreatitis. An increase in the activity of alkaline phosphatase by 56% (p<0.001) compared to the indicator of healthy animals indicates the development of cholestasis. An increase in the level of total bilirubin is characteristic of pancreatitis complicated by cholecystitis. Thus, the results of biochemical disorders significantly depend on the degree of inflammation of pancreatic tissue, which is directly dependent on one or another complication.


1. Adrian, A. M., Twedt, D. C., Kraft, S. L. & Marolf, A. J. (2015). Computed Tomographic Angiography under Sedation in the Diagnosis of Suspected Canine Pancreatitis: A Pilot Study. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 29 (1), 97–103. doi: 10.1111/jvim.12467
2. Agthe, P. (2009). Ultrasonography of the gastrointestinal tract and associated organs in dogs and cats. In Practice, 31 (4), 182–188. doi:10.1136/inpract.31.4.182
3. Bostrom, B. M., Xenoulis, P. G., Newman, S. J., Pool, R. R. , Fosgate, G. T. & Steiner, J. M. (2013). Chronic pancreatitis in dogs: A retrospective study of clinical, clinicopathological, and histopathological findings in 61 cases. The Veterinary Journal, 195 (1), 73–79. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2012.06.034
4. Cho, H., Yang, S., Suh, G. & Choi, J. (2022). Correlating two-dimensional shear wave elastography of acute pancreatitis with Spec cPL in dogs. Journal of Veterinary Science, 23 (5): e79. doi: 10.4142/jvs.22055
5. Comazzi, S, Pieralisi, C & Bertazzolo, W. (2004). Haematological and biochemical abnormalities in canine blood: frequency and associations in 1022 samples. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 45:343–349. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2004.tb00246.x
6. Cridge, H., MacLeod, A. G., Pachtinger, G. E., Mackin, A. J., Sullivant, A. M., Thomason, J. M., Archer, T. M., Lunsford, K. V., Rosenthal, K. & Wills, R. W. (2018). Evaluation of SNAP cPL, Spec cPL, VetScan cPL Rapid Test, and Precision PSL Assays for the Diagnosis of Clinical Pancreatitis in Dogs. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 32 (2), 658–664. doi: 10.1111/jvim.15039
7. Cridge, H., Sullivant, A. M., Wills, R. W. & Lee, A. M. (2020). Association between abdominal ultrasound findings, the specific canine pancreatic lipase assay, clinical severity indices, and clinical diagnosis in dogs with pancreatitis. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 34 (2), 636–643. https://doi.org/10.1111/jvim.15693
8. Cridge, H., Twedt, D. C., Marolf, A. J., Sharkey, L. C. & Steiner, J. M. (2021). Аdvances in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis in dogs. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 35 (6), 2572–2587. doi: 10.1111/jvim.16292
9. Fabrès, V., Dossin, O., Reif, C., Campos, M., Freiche, V., Maurey, C., Pilot-Storck, F., Desquilbet, L. & Benchekroun, G. (2019). Development and validation of a novel clinical scoring system for short-term prediction of death in dogs with acute pancreatitis. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 33 (2), 499–507. doi:10.1111/jvim.15421
10. Filonenko T. H. & Klimov A. O. (2009). Histolohichni zminy pidshlunkovoi zalozy pry hostromu ta khronichnomu pankreatyti u sobak. [Histological changes in the pancreas in acute and chronic pancreatitis in dogs]. Veterynarna medytsyna Ukrainy, 12, 27–28. [in Ukrainian]
11. French, J. M., Twedt, D. C., Rao, S. & Marolf, A. J. (2018). Computed tomographic angiography and ultrasonography in the diagnosis and evaluation of acute pancreatitis in dogs. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 33 (1), 79–88. doi: 10.1111/jvim.15364
12. Gori, E., Lippi, I., Guidi, G., Perondi, F., Pierini, A. & Marchetti, V. (2019). Acute pancreatitis and acute kidney injury in dogs. The Veterinary Journal, 245, 77–81. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2019.01.002
13. Guglielmini, C., Crisi, P. E., Tardo, A. M., Maggio, R. D., Boari, A., Fracassi, F. & Miglio, A. (2022). Prognostic Role of Red Cell Distribution Width and Other Routine Clinico-Pathological Parameters in Dogs with Acute Pancreatitis. Animals, 12 (24), 3483. doi: 10.3390/ani12243483
14. Hardwick, J. J., Reeve, E. J., Hezzell, M. J. & Reeve, J. A. (2022). Prevalence of ultrasonographic gastrointestinal wall changes in dogs with acute pancreatitis: A retrospective study (2012-2020). Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 36 (3), 947–956. doi: 10.1111/jvim.16414
15. Haworth, M. D., Hosgood, G., Swindells, K. L. & Mansfield, C. S. (2014). Diagnostic accuracy of the SNAP and Spec canine pancreatic lipase tests for pancreatitis in dogs presenting with clinical signs of acute abdominal disease. Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society, 24 (2), 135–143. doi:10.1111/vec.12158
16. Hecht, S. & Henry, G. (2007). Sonographic Evaluation of the Normal and Abnormal Pancreas. Clinical Techniques in Small Animal Practice, 22 (3), 115–121. doi: 10.1053/j.ctsap.2007.05.005
17. Hope, A., Bailen, E. L., Shiel, R. E. & Mooney, C. T. (2021). Retrospective study evaluation of DGGR lipase for diagnosis, agreement with pancreatic lipase and prognosis in dogs with suspected acute pancreatitis. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 62 (12), 1092–1100. doi: 10.1111/jsap.13379
18. Kathrani, A., Steiner, J. M., Suchodolski, J., Eastwood, J., Syme, H., Garden, K. & Allenspach, O. A. (2009). Elevated canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentration in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease is associated with a negative outcome. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 50 (3), 126–132. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2008.00693.x
19. Kent, A. C. C., Constantino-Casas, F., Rusbridge, C., Corcoran, B. M., Carter, M., Ledger, T. & Watson, P. J. (2016). Prevalence of pancreatic, hepatic and renal microscopic lesions in post-mortem samples from cavalier King Charles spaniels. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 57 (4), 188–193. doi:10.1111/jsap.12444
20. Keany, K. M., Fosgate, G. T., Perry, Sean, M., Stroup, S. T. & Steiner, J. M. (2021). Serum concentrations of canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity and C-reactive protein for monitoring disease progression in dogs with acute pancreatitis. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 35 (5), 2187–2195. doi:10.1111/jvim.16218
21. Kook, P. H., Kohler, N., Hartnack, S., Riond, B. & Reusch, C. E. (2014). Agreement of Serum Spec cPL with the 1,2-o-Dilauryl-Rac-Glycero Glutaric Acid-(6′-methylresorufin) Ester (DGGR) Lipase Assay and with Pancreatic Ultrasonography in Dogs with Suspected Pancreatitis. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 28 (3), 863–870. doi: 10.1111/jvim.12334
22. Lamb, C. R. (1990). Abdominal ultrasonography in small animals: Examination of the liver, spleen and pancreas. Journal of Small Animal Practice. 31 (1), 5–14. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.1990.tb00645.x
23. Lidbury, J. A. & Suchodolski J. S. (2016). New advances in the diagnosis of canine and feline liver and pancreatic disease. The Veterinary Journal, 215, 87–95. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2016.02.010
24. Lim, S. Y., Steiner, J. M. & Cridge, H. (2022). Understanding lipase assays in the diagnosis of pancreatitis in veterinary medicine. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 260 (11), doi: 10.2460/javma.22.03.0144
25. Mansfield, С. (2012) Acute Pancreatitis in Dogs: Advances in Understanding, Diagnostics, and Treatment. Topics in Companion Animal Medicine, 27 (3), 123–132. doi: 10.1053/j.tcam.2012.04.003
26. Mansfield, C. S., Anderson, G. A. & O’Hara, A. J. (2012). Association between canine pancreatic-specific lipase and histologic exocrine pancreatic inflammation in dogs: assessing specificity. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 24 (2), 312–318. doi: 10.1177/1040638711433598
27. Marchetti, V., Gori, E., Lippi, I., E Luchetti, E., Manca, M. & Pierini, A. (2017). Elevated serum creatinine and hyponatraemia as prognostic factors in canine acute pancreatitis. Australian Veterinary Journal, 95 (11), 444–447. doi:org/10.1111/avj.12638
28. Neilson-Carley, S. C., Robertson, J. E., Newman, S. J., Kutchmarick, D., Relford, R., Woosley, K. & Steiner, J. M. (2011). Specificity of a canine pancreas-specific lipase assay for diagnosing pancreatitis in dogs without clinical or histologic evidence of the disease. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 72 (3). doi: 10.2460/ajvr.72.3.302
29. Pápa, K., Máthé, Á., Abonyi-Tóth, Z., Sterczer, А., Psáder, R., Hetyey, C., Vajdovich, P. & Vörös, K. (2011). Occurrence, clinical features and outcome of canine pancreatitis (80 cases). Acta Veterinaria Hungarica, 59 (1), 37–52. doi:10.1556/avet.59.2011.1.4
30. Rudinsky, A. J. (2023). Laboratory Diagnosis of Pancreatitis. Small Animal Practice, 53 (1), 225–240. doi: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2022.07.015
31. Steiner, J. M., Teague, S. R., Lees, G. E., Willard, M. D., Williams, D. A. & Ruaux, C. G. (2009). Stability of canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentration in serum samples and effects of long-term administration of prednisone to dogs on serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 70 (8), 1001–1005. doi:10.2460/ajvr.70.8.1001
32. Trivedi, S., Marks, S. L., Kass, P. H., Luff, J. A., Keller, S. M., Johnson, E. G. & Murphy, B. (2011). Sensitivity and Specificity of Canine Pancreas-Specific Lipase (cPL) and Other Markers for Pancreatitis in 70 Dogs with and without Histopathologic Evidence of Pancreatitis. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 25 (6), 1241–1247. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2011.00793.x
33. Verkest, K. R., Fleeman, L. M., Morton, J. M., Groen, S. J., Suchodolski, J. S., Steiner, J. M. & Rand, J. S. (2012). Association of Postprandial Serum Triglyceride Concentration and Serum Canine Pancreatic Lipase Immunoreactivity in Overweight and Obese Dogs. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine,26 (1), 46–53. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2011.00844.x
34. Watson, Р. (2012). Chronic Pancreatitis in Dogs. Topics in Companion Animal Medicine, 27 (3), 133–139. doi: 10.1053/j.tcam.2012.04.006
35. Watson, P. J., Roulois, J. A., Scase, T. J., Irvine, R. & Herrtage, M. E. (2010). Prevalence of hepatic lesions at post-mortem examination in dogs and association with pancreatitis. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 51 (11), 566–572. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2010.00996.x
36. Watson, Р. (2015). Pancreatitis in dogs and cats: definitions and pathophysiology. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 56 (1), 3–12. doi:10.1111/jsap.12293
37. Xenoulis, P. G. (2015). Diagnosis of pancreatitis in dogs and cats. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 56 (1), 13–26. doi: 10.1111/jsap.12274
38. Yuki, M., Hirano, T., Nagata, N., Kitano, S., Imataka, K., Tawada, R., Shimada, R. & Ogawa, M. (2015). Clinical Utility of Diagnostic Laboratory Tests in Dogs with Acute Pancreatitis: A Retrospective Investigation in a Primary Care Hospital. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 30 (1), 116–122. doi:10.1111/jvim.13660
How to Cite
SamoilіukV. V., Kozii, M. S., Semonov, O. V., Bilyi, D. D., & Maslikov, S. M. (2023). FEATURES OF DIAGNOSIS OF PANCREATITIS IN DOGS. Bulletin of Sumy National Agrarian University. The Series: Veterinary Medicine, (4(63), 106-113. https://doi.org/10.32782/bsnau.vet.2023.4.17