Experimental justification of the efficacy of Zn and Ag citrates in bird bacterioses
Introduction. The most important indicator of effective control of a rational system of measures for the prevention of bacterial diseases is the results of microbiological monitoring of the internal environment of poultry houses and their facilities. Most often, the results of microbiological studies confirm the presence of pathogenic and opportunistic microflora belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae, which includes more than 20 genera (Escherichia, Shigella, Salmonella, Klebsiella, Proteus, Citrobacter, Yersinia, etc.), which can cause disease not only in birds, but also in humans.
Most often, the bacterial infection is mixed. The leading place in the etiological structure is occupied by microorganisms of the intestinal group, which are represented by Escherichia coli and Salmonella in associations with other species of opportunistic bacteria. The consequence of this is the development of bacterial infections, which dramatically reduce the resistance of birds compared to monoinfections and adversely affect the immunobiological reactivity of the organism and remain the main cause of death of birds.
Bacterial diseases of poultry occupy a significant place among the current problems of modern poultry in all countries, the most epizootic are Escherichia coli, mycoplasmosis and salmonellosis of birds [1-4]. During monitoring studies in poultry farms, cultures of Escherichia coli, staphylococci, Proteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ornithobacteria, etc. are isolated, which significantly complicates the timely and objective diagnosis and development of control and prevention measures.
The goal of the work. To substantiate the effectiveness of Zn and Ag citrates in avian bacteriosis.
Materials and methods: The research was conducted in the vivarium of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Sumy NAU in compliance with ethical norms and rules of animal treatment adopted at the First National Congress of Bioethics (Kyiv, 2001) and the European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals scientific purposes "(Strasbourg, 1986), 80 heads of Leghorn chickens were used for the experiment. Of the drugs used new drugs citrates - are sorbents of a new generation, which are produced by LLC "DOCTOR OSKO" Sumy. The composition of these drugs contains natural activated zeolite, silver citrate and zinc citrate. The basis is zeolite (clinoptilolite) - a natural mineral used in medicine as a selective enterosorbent. Properties of the drug: zeolite corrects mineral deficiency and performs the transport function of microelements in the body and adsorbs toxic substances from the body while maintaining the natural balance. This modification technology consists in supplementing the mineral composition of the zeolite with ions of any macro- and microelements (in the form of citrates), "placing" them in the structure of its framework.
The experimental bird at the age of 24 hours was divided into 8 groups - 4 control and 4 experimental. Chickens of the first control and two experimental groups (5.6 groups) at 10 days of age were infected with E. coli 078 at a dose of LD50 2 * 109μ / cm3. Chickens of the third and two other experimental (7.8 groups) were infected with S. pullorum in the same dose. In the fifth and seventh groups, Zn citrate was given at the dose of 15 g / 250 cm3 from the first day, and in the fourth, sixth and eighth groups, Ag citrate was given at the same dose. The drugs were administered daily for 14 days, and also monitored the clinical condition of chickens up to 30 days of age. Toxicological examination of meat samples taken from slaughtered chickens was performed using a standard commercial batch of culture of colfod infusoria, made in accordance with the requirements of the regulatory documentation TU U 46.15.243-97.
Results of research and discussion. Zn and Ag citrates at a dose of 15 g / 250 cm3 prevent bacteriosis, namely Escherichia coli and salmonellosis. Preservation of chickens in the experimental groups was 90-100%
The toxicity of poultry meat was determined using free-living ciliates, which are most commonly used in biotesting of drugs, feeds, and feed additives. Their use is explained by the ease of penetration of the investigated dispersed solutions of a certain concentration due to the lack of selective nutritional capacity. When a single-celled organism receives a toxic substance, it becomes highly excited or less mobile, loses orientation in space, changes the shape and size of the body, resulting in impaired division functions, then it slows down and dies. Examining chicken meat for the toxicity of citrates Ag and Zn drew attention to the previously listed characteristics, which are used as the main test reactions.
Studies have shown that meat from healthy poultry does not adversely affect the culture of Colpoda steinii, which indicates the absence of toxic substances in meat
The meat of poultry treated with Zn and Ag citrates did not adversely affect the colpod, they remained mobile for three hours in all samples. The intensity of their growth was 90%, which indicates the absence of toxic effects of citrates. The meat of poultry infected with Escherichia coli and salmonellosis was toxic - 90% of colpods died within three hours. The meat of chickens that were infected with S. pullorum on the background of the use of Ag citrate was slightly toxic, but when using Zn was non-toxic.
Conclusion. Thus, experiments have established the effectiveness of the use of Zn and Ag citrates in Escherichia coli and salmonellosis of birds, when they are used, the safety of birds is 90-100%. Poultry meat that received citrates is safe - for three hours all colpods remained mobile, and their growth rate was 90%
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