Distribution of horses` arachnoentomoses
The article presents the results of a study of the distribution and seasonal dynamics of arachnoentomoses of horses. Arachnoses and entomoses - invasive diseases caused by arthropods - ticks and insects, temporary and permanent parasites of animals, causing enormous economic damage to horse breeding. Horses can be parasitized by subcutaneous mosquitoes - oviparous and live-bearing two-winged insects that parasitize in the larval stage. The aim of the research was to study the distribution of arachnoentomoses of horses in farms of different forms of ownership depending on the season. The research was conducted during 2019-2020 on horses of different breeds and age groups in the farm STOV "Victoria" of Krasnopil district and private farms of Sumy region. In order to detect entoparasites and endoparasites in horses, diagnostic studies (epizootological, clinical and laboratory) were performed. A total of 68 animals of different age groups were studied. Extensiveness and intensity of chorioptosis and sarcoptosis invasion were determined by the mortal method using 10% sodium hydroxide solution. To the scrapes taken from the affected areas of the skin was added a 10% solution of sodium hydroxide, moved and left for 30 minutes. to soften the crusts. Then the material was placed in small portions on a glass slide and examined under a microscope at low magnification. Extensiveness and intensity of hematopinosis invasion were determined during examination of horses on the skin, in the neck, shoulders, tail found eggs, larvae and adult lice. In turn, bloodsuckers were found during the examination on the snout, head, neck, ears, sides of the animal. Detected insects were examined with a magnifying glass. The most common arachnoentomoses of horses have been found to be hematopinosis, hypoboscosis, chorioptosis, and sarcoptosis. According to the results of our research, we found larvae eggs and mature insects in 20% of the studied animals. According to morphological features, a species affiliation was established - lice Haematopinus asini of the family Haematopinidae. In some animals, the intensity of the invasion reached 2-3 copies. parasites per 1 dm² body area of the animal. Also during the examination of horses on the snout, head, neck, ears, sides of 8% of animals were found bloodsuckers Nurrobosca equina family Hyppoboscidae. The intensity of the invasion in some animals reached 3-4 copies. parasites per 1 dm² body area of the animal. In addition to Chorioptes egui mites, Sarcoptes equi mites of the Sarcoptidae family were found in the scrapings studied. The extent of the invasion was 4.5%, and the intensity was 3 specimens of mites in the field of view of the microscope. Acariform mites of the species Chorioptes egui were found in the study of horse skin scrapings. Characteristic features of this species are the presence of long bristles that cover almost the entire body. The extent of the invasion was 8.3%, and the intensity was 2 specimens of mites in the field of view of the microscope. It was found that the peak of hematopinosis invasion occurs in the autumn-winter period of 28% and 19%, while in the spring-summer period this figure was 7% and 2%, respectively. Nurrobosca equine was found only in the summer. Simultaneous parasitization of Haematopinus asini lice and chorioptes mites was detected in horses. Acarosis chorioptosis and sarcoptosis reached the peak of invasion in the autumn-winter period of 20% and 22% and 8% and 7%, respectively.
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