REGULATION OF MYCOFLORA OF WINTER WHEAT SEEDS BY SPRAYING WITH FUNGICIDES
Some members of the mycoflora of winter wheat seeds appear in it from the moment of flowering to harvest. Therefore, spray-ing plants at the beginning of flowering and later should significantly affect the mycocomplex of the grain. During 2018–2020, the impact of spraying on the formation of winter wheat seed mycoflora in the conditions of the north-eastern Forest-Steppe of Ukraine was studied. The study involved the following fungicides: Falcon, c.e., Immunocytophyte, tb, Trichophyte, s., Gaupsin, s., and Chitosan, tb. The analysis of the mycocomplex was performed on potato-glucose agar. Chemical and biological preparations significantly regulated the formation of mycoflora. This measure not only changed the number of selected species / genera, but also the general composition of fungi. In 2018, they reduced the number of dominant Alter-naria fungi and caused the appearance of Mucor sp., especially in the variant with the simultaneous use of Falcon, c.e., and Immuno-cytophyte, tb. In 2019, the use of fungicides led to a decrease in the number of dominant A. pullulans and Alternaria sp. and to increase the isolation of dangerous N. oryzae, which significantly affected the length of seedlings. The highest number of this species was noted in the variants with the use of Falcon, c.e. In 2020, the largest change in the composition of the mycoflora in three years of studying the effectiveness of fungicides was noted. All fungicides reduced the number of dominant Alternaria fungi and caused a significant appearance of A. pullulans, which was absent from the control. Three-year analysis of Falcon's test, c.e. and Trichophyte, s. against dominant Alternaria fungi showed significant changes in their numbers. The average efficiency for three years of the first was 65.1 %, of the second – 26.2 %. Fungicide spraying also significantly affected the weight of 1000 seeds. For the most part, their use increased this index, except in 2018, when in the mycoflora of seeds they provoked the appearance of Mucor sp. The most complete seeds were formed in variants with spraying with biological fungicides. The study of the effect of spraying wheat on plant length during seed germination showed the best results in variants also with biofungicides. Thus, spraying of winter wheat with chemical and biological preparations causes a decrease in the dominant species in the seed mycoflora, which leads to the appearance or increase of its other components. Very often some representatives replace other fungi.
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