Economically useful qualities of sows landrace and large white for purebred breeding, crossbreeding and hybridization in conditions of industrial crossing
The reproductive qualities of sows of different origins of Irish selection: purebred Landrace (♀L × ♂L), Large White (♀LW × ♂LW), two-breed hybrids obtained from reciprocal crossing (♀LW × ♂L), (♂L × ♀LW) and the final hybrids obtained from crosses of two-breed hybrid sows with boars of the synthetic line "Maxgro" (Mr) were investigated.. The experiments were carried out in the conditions of an industrial pig-breeding complex of LLC "SPE" Globinskyi pig farm. Comparative analysis of the indicators characterizing the reproductive ability of purebred sows of Landrace and Large White breeds did not reveal any interbreed difference. Evaluation of two-breed hybrids, ♀L × ♂LW and ♀LW × ♂L found slightly higher indices in favor of ♀LW × ♂L sows in terms of the number of piglets born (0.6 heads), multiple pregnancies (+0.56 heads), weight nests at birth (+0.37 kg), weight of piglets at weaning (+0.23) with an unreliable difference. However, ♀ LW × ♂L sows were inferior by the number of piglets at weaning with a significant difference of 0.7 heads. (P <0.05) due to the poorer preservation of piglets in sows♀L × ♂LW by 6.73% with a significant difference (P <0.01). Compared to the final hybrids (♂LW × ♂L) × ♂Mr) and (♀ (L × LW) × ♂Mr), the young animals from the crossing of mothers ♂LW × ♂L with “Maxgro” boars turned out to be the best according to the estimated traits. So, in terms of the total number of piglets born, sows of this combination exceeded other experimental groups of sows by 0.7-1.76 heads. A significant difference by this trait was found when comparing with I (P <0.001) and III (P <0.05) groups. The successful combination of the maternal base of two-breed hybrids with the parental synthetic line "Maxgro" made it possible to obtain the effect of heterosis on the basis of live weight increase in piglets during their weaning. The best combination of the final hybrid (♀LW × L) × ♂Mr, which exceeded the final hybrids (♀L × LW) × ♂Mr by nest weight at weaning by 14.93 kg (P <0.001), by indicators of live weight gain of piglets : average daily - by 36.31 g (P <0.01), absolute - by 0.98 kg (P <0.01) and relative - by 5.04% (P <0.05). They also predominated piglets obtained from purebred sows and their two-breed hybrids from reciprocal crossing, by nest weight of piglets at weaning from 21.03 (♀L × ♂L) to 28.72 kg (♀LW × ♂L) with a highly reliable difference at P <0.001. In terms of live weight gain: average daily, absolute and relative, final hybrids (♀LW × L) × ♂Mr, dominated by piglets in I-IV groups with variability 47.86-68.10 g, on (P <0.001), 1.27-1,84 kg (P <0.001) and 3.98-10.29% (n / d – P <0.00 1), respectively.
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