Manifestation of the combination ability of pigs of Irish selection in the industrial production of pork in the steppe of Ukraine
The article evaluates the effect of heterosis for direct and reciprocal formation of the main material rocks of large white and landrace of Irish origin in terms of industrial technology of pork production in the steppe of Ukraine. The study revealed the manifestation of the effect of heterosis on most maternal traits in both direct and reverse crossing of the main maternal breeds. But on different grounds, its effect was different. The effect of heterosis in both direct and reverse crossing has been established in terms of fertility. The highest in direct crossing was the specific heterosis – 8,97%, while the true and total heterosis were at 7,48%. In the reverse variant of the combination of pigs of these breeds, the total heterosis in terms of fertility was 3,45%, the true and specific heterosis was 2,04%, while the hypothetical was 2,74%. In sows of large white breed when combined with boars of Landrace breed, negative values of all types of heterosis were observed at the level of 5,24 -5,47%. In the reverse combination of pigs of these breeds, a positive total heterosis was found – 3,90%, true and specific was 3.65%, and hypothetical – 3,77%. In terms of the number of piglets at weaning, the effect of heterosis was lower than direct crossing (♀VB × ♂L) in comparison with the reverse (♀L × ♂VB). Thus, in direct crossing, the specific heterosis was 3,36%, while the hypothetical 2,50%. For backcrossing of animals of these breeds, the effect of total heterosis was 7,56%, true and specific heterosis 5,79% and hypothetical – 6,67%. The effect of heterosis on the nest weight of piglets when weaned in sows of Landrace breed inseminated with sperm boars of large white breed was as follows - general – 6,60%, hypothetical – 6,40%, true and specific – 6,20%. The effect of hybrid force on the complex of traits of reproductive qualities of sows on the indicator SIVYAS was the highest effect of specific heterosis for the combination of breeds ♀VB × ♂L - 8,88%, while the hypothetical heterosis on SIVYAS was 8,26%, and the general and true forms were at the level of 7,65%. When combining Landrace sows with large white boars, the effects of heterosis on SIVYAS total heterosis on the complex of these traits for this combination was 2.64%, hypothetical – 2,05%, and specific and true 1,48%. According to the majority of reproductive qualities of sows of maternal genotypes of large white and landrace breeds, the effect of heterosis was revealed both at their direct and reverse crossing. When crossing sows of large white breed with boars of Landrace breed, the highest manifestation of the effect of heterosis was on the total number of piglets at birth – 1,18… 8,86%, fertility – 7,48… 8,97% and selection index of reproductive qualities (SIVYAS) – 7,85 – 8,88%. In the reciprocal variant of crossing animals of these breeds, the highest rate of heterosis was found in the number of piglets at weaning – 5,79… 7,56%, the weight of piglets at weaning 6,20… 6,60% and the estimated index with a limited number of traits (IVA) – 3,93… 5,08%.
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