Fattening and killing qualities of pigs of Irish origin with different growth intensity for fattening
The influence of growth intensity during fattening and pre-slaughter live weight on carcass slaughter rates was studied. It was found that at the end of fattening pigs of the experimental group due to higher growth intensity during fattening reached pre-slaughter live weight at the age of 183 days – 128,48 kg, probably exceeding pigs with low growth intensity, which at the same age had 18,84 kg or 14,66% (p <0,001) lower weight. This is probably due to the higher growth intensity, which was characterized by a higher by 16,81 kg or 16,49% – the rate of absolute increase (p <0,001), by 158,62 g or 16,50% – the rate of average daily gain (p <0,001), and by 4,54% – an indicator of relative growth (p <0,001), which led to an earlier by 17,52 days to achieve a live weight of 100 kg. According to the complex of fattening qualities, pigs with high growth intensity prevailed over analogues with low by 13,00 points or 32,22%. Pigs with higher growth intensity during fattening, which were slaughtered at a pre-slaughter live weight of 130 kg, significantly outperformed their counterparts, which were slaughtered at a weight of 110 kg in terms of: slaughter weight of 14,4 kg or 15,06%, weight of chilled carcass by 14,2 kg or 15,15%, the thickness of the fat above the 6-7 thoracic vertebrae by 4,01 mm or 11,43%, the thickness of the fat in the withers by 3,7 mm or 8,89%, the thickness of the fat in the buttocks 3,0 mm or 9,09%, carcass length 3,7 cm or 3,64%, bacon half length 6,4 cm or 7,18%, ham weight 2,5 kg or 16,18%, the weight of the balyk by 0,6 kg or 16,90% and the area of the "muscle eye" by 5,2 cm2 or 7,21%. There is no significant difference in the amount of weight loss during cooling between the carcasses of animals of both groups. By one-way analysis of variance, a significant effect of the pre-slaughter live weight of pigs on the length of the carcass – by 44,13%, the length of the bacon half – by 42,52%, the thickness of the fat: in the buttocks – by 83,24%, over 6-7 vertebrae – by 82,81%, at the withers – by 84,04%, the weight of the ham – by 67,14%, the area of the "muscular eye" – at the level of 88,12%. The complex index of fattening and meat qualities was higher in pigs with an average slaughter weight of 130 kg, amounting to 188,01 points, which is 10,76 or 5,72% higher than in pigs with an average slaughter weight of 110 kg. It is proved that for each increase in the thickness of the fat in the withers at the pre-slaughter live weight of 110 kg per 1,0 mm, the area of the "muscle eye" of the carcasses of experimental animals will also increase proportionally by 3,01 cm2. and the area of the "muscle cell" for carcasses at ante-mortem live weight of 110 kg suggests that there is a reserve to increase ante-mortem live weight both by increasing adipose tissue and by simultaneously increasing the amount of muscle tissue. However, there is a certain optimal weight limit between the slaughter weight of 110 and 130 kg, according to which the distribution of dependence becomes inverse and further fattening and increasing the amount of fat will reduce the meat quality of carcasses, which is economically impractical.
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