Comparative characteristics of meat and slaughter qualities of ducks during raising in the area of radioactive contamination
The article presents the results of research on meat and slaughter qualities of ducks under different methods of keeping during raising in subsidiary farms of the 2nd zone of radioactive contamination. The ecological safety of duck meat production with indoor and outdoor breeding is theoretically and practically substantiated as the main source of protein in the diet of the population living in the regions affected by radioactive contamination as a result of the Chernobyl accident. Scientific and economic research on the raising of ducks in radioactively contaminated areas was conducted in 2011-2012 in the village of Khrystynivka, Narodychi district, Zhytomyr region. The density of cesium contamination -137 was > 15 curies per square kilometer. For experiments on the principle of pairs of analogues were selected 60 heads of ducks with an average live weight of 40.6 g. each one (in confinement), from the age of 30 days ducks were divided into two groups depending on the method of breeding – outdoor and indoor, 25 heads in each, the average live weight of ducklings was 520 g. The experimental duck of indoor breeding was kept in a fence during the day, which, thanks to the canopy, protected it from adverse weather conditions, and the ducks spent the nights indoors. Experimental ducks (outdoor breeding) were with a natural restriction on the territory of the reservoir 0,4-0,6 he during the day. Ducks were fed in cages and spent the nights in closed premises. Ducks were provided with nutrients through balanced feeding rations, as limited water bodies were poor in natural forage. Research shows that duck breeding methods have a significant effect on the growth and development of poultry, the weight of gutted carcasses, the yield of carcass components, and the accumulation of 137Cs in poultry meat. The ducks of outdoor breeding were characterized by higher live weight, better development of internal organs, the weight of gutted carcasses, muscle output. Studies have shown that the specific activity of 137Cs in the meat of experimental ducks of both groups did not exceed the permissible levels and ranged from 12,9 to 75,9 Bq/Kg. The specific activity of 137Cs in the muscles of outdoor breeding ducks was 21-46 % lower than that of indoor breeding. The ecological safety of duck meat production for the inhabitants of the 2nd zone of radioactive contamination, both of the indoor and outdoor breeding, is substantiated, giving preference to the latter.
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