Influence of vaccination of cows against anthrax on the artificial insemination results
Fertility rate is one of the markers of the effectiveness of the livestock industry, but the successful formation and fixation of the zygote in the mucous membrane of the uterus can be hindered by various inflammatory processes. Immunological reactions of the postvaccination complex can also affect fertility.
Previous observations of the fertility status of cows on the farm indicated a significant decrease in this indicator just after vaccination against anthrax. The results of the studies presented in the article show a significant decrease in fertility. In our opinion, this is due to the immunological processes in the body of vaccinated cows that were inseminated. That is, the immune system stimulated during vaccination is not able to inhibit its work in the genital tract, and therefore prevents the attachment of the successfully formed during fertilization zygote to the uterine mucosa, which eventually ends in infertility and the onset of re-libido.
The results suggest that vaccination of animals against anthrax and especially the period of active formation of post-vaccine specific immunity reduces reproduction rates in cows: fertility rates decreased by 16.2% during the first week after vaccination and by 50% during the second compared with animals that inseminated before vaccination It was found that in cows that were inseminated during the immunological load, there was an increase in the duration of infertility - by 12.7% and 38.6%, respectively. The economic loss from calves in the group of cows inseminated immediately after vaccination was 2.7 times greater, and in the group of cows inseminated in the second week after vaccination - respectively 3.5 times higher than in cows inseminated before vaccination. Losses from milk shortage in these groups increased by 7.6% and 38.4%, respectively.
2. Archana, SS, Selvaraju, S, Binsila, BK, Arangasamy, A, Krawetz, SA. (2019). Immune regulatory molecules as modifiers of semen and fertility: A review. Mol Reprod Dev., 86: 1485– 1504. https://doi.org/10.1002/mrd.23263
3. Archana, SS, Selvaraju, S, Binsila, BK, Arangasamy, A, Krawetz, SA. Immune regulatory molecules as modifiers of semen and fertility: A review. Mol Reprod Dev. 2019; 86: 1485– 1504. https://doi.org/10.1002/mrd.23263
4. Arthur M. Friedlander, John D. Grabenstein, Philip S. Brachman, Stanley A. Plotkin, Walter A. Orenstein, Paul A. Offit, Kathryn M. Edwards. (2018). Plotkin's Vaccines (Seventh Edition), Anthrax Vaccines, Elsevier, 134-148. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-35761-6.00011-0.
5. Bassuino, D.M., Siqueira, F.M., Konradt, G., Vielmo, A., Rolim, V.M., Gonçalves M.A., Cibulski S.P., Snel, G., MayerF.Q., Castagna de Vargas A. Driemeier, D. Pavarini, S.P. (2020) Bovine abortion by a vaccine strain of Bacillus anthracis Ciência Rural 50(12). DOI: 10.1590/0103-8478cr20200264. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/344324108_Bovine_abortion_by_a_vaccine_strain_of_Bacillus_anthracis [accessed Oct 2 2020
6. Chabot, D.J., Joyce, J., Caulfield, M., Cook, J., Hepler, R., Wang, Su, Vietri, N. J., Ruthel, G., Shoop, W., Pitt, L., Leffel, E., Ribot, W., Friedlander, A. M. (2012). Efficacy of a capsule conjugate vaccine against inhalational anthrax in rabbits and monkeys. Vaccine, 30, 5, 846-852. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.12.010.
7. Fasanella, A., Tonello, F., Garofolo, G., Muraro, L., Carattoli, A., Adone, R., Montecucco C. (2008). Protective activity and immunogenicity of two recombinant anthrax vaccines for veterinary use. Vaccine 26(45), 5684-5688. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.08.026
8. Firoved, A.M., Miller, G.F., Moayeri, M., Kakkar, R., Shen, Y., Wiggins, J.F., McNally, E.M., Tang, W.-J., Leppla, S.H. (2005). Bacillus anthracis edema toxin causes extensive tissue lesions and rapid lethality in mice. American Journal of Pathology, 167, 5, 1309-1320.
9. Franco, C., Lewis, E., Morseth, S., Simon, L., Waytes, A.T. (2009). Reproductive toxicity of BioThrax® in rabbits. Birth Defects Research Part B - Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology, 86, 5, 370-376
10. Hansen, P. J. (2007). Regulation of immune cells in the uterus during pregnancy in ruminants. Journal of Animal Science, 85, E30–E31.
11. Hansen, P. J. (2007). Regulation of immune cells in the uterus during pregnancy in ruminants. Journal of Animal Science, 85, E30–E31.
12. Ian Tizard (2020) Vaccine Failure and Other Adverse Events in Animals. At https://www.merckvetmanual.com/pharmacology/vaccines-and-immunotherapy/vaccine-failure-and-other-adverse-events-in-animals
13. Ibrahim, L. A., Rizo, J. A., Fontes, P. L. P., Lamb, G. C., & Bromfield, J. J. (2018). Seminal plasma modulates expression of endometrial inflammatory meditators in the bovine. Biology of Reproduction, 100, 660–671.
14. Ionin, B., Hopkins, R.J., Pleune, B., Sivko, G.S., Reid, F.M., Clement, K.H., Rudge Jr., T.L., Stark, G.V., Innes, A., Sari, S., Guina, T., Howard, C., Smith, J., Swoboda, M.L., Vert-Wong, E., Johnson, V., Nabors, G.S., Skiadopoulos, M.H. (2013). Evaluation of immunogenicity and efficacy of anthrax vaccine adsorbed for postexposure prophylaxis. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, 20, 7, 1016-1026
15. Kern, J., Schneewind, O. (2010). BslA, the S-layer adhesin of B. anthracis, is a virulence factor for anthrax pathogenesis. Molecular Microbiology, 75, 2, 324-332
16. Liu, S., Moayeri, M., Leppla, S.H. (2014). Anthrax lethal and edema toxins in anthrax pathogenesis. Trends in Microbiology, 22, 6, 317-325
17. Manuilov AV (2004) Vlyianye vaktsynoprofylaktyky ynfektsyonnыkh boleznei na vosproyzvodytelnuiu funktsyiu korov. [Influence of vaccine prophylaxis of infectious diseases on reproductive function of cows]. Dyss kand vet nauk [PhD thesises], 16. [in Russian]
18. Marey, M. A., Liu, J., Kowsar, R., Haneda, S., Matsui, M., Sasaki, M., … Miyamoto, A. (2014). Bovine oviduct epithelial cells downregulate phagocytosis of sperm by neutrophils: Prostaglandin E2 as a major physiological regulator. Reproduction, 147, 211–219.
19. Marey, M. A., Yousef, M. S., Kowsar, R., Hambruch, N., Shimizu, T., Pfarrer, C., & Miyamoto, A. (2016). Local immune system in oviduct physiology and pathophysiology: Attack or tolerance, Domestic Animal Endocrinology, 56, S204–S211.
20. Martin E. Hugh-Jones (2015). Overview of Anthrax. https://www.merckvetmanual.com/generalized-conditions/anthrax/overview-of-anthrax
21. Oscherwitz, J., Quinn, C.P., Cease, K.B. (2015). Anthrax vaccine recipients lack antibody against the loop neutralizing determinant: A protective neutralizing epitope from Bacillus anthracis protective antigen. Vaccine, 33, 20, 2342-2346
22. Quinn CP, Sabourin CL, Schiffer JM, Niemuth NA, Semenova VA, Li H, Rudge TL, Brys AM, Mittler RS, Ibegbu CC, Wrammert J, Ahmed R, Parker SD, Babcock J, Keitel W, Poland GA, Keyserling HL, El Sahly H, Jacobson RM, Marano N, Plikaytis BD, Wright JG. (2016). Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immune Responses to Alternate Booster Schedules of Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed in Humans. Clin Vaccine Immunol., 23(4), 326-338. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00696-15.
23. Robert J. Hopkins, Nancy F. Daczkowski, Paulina E. Kaptur, Derek Muse, Eric Sheldon, Craig LaForce, Suha Sari, Thomas L. Rudge, Edward Bernton. (2013). Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, safety and immunogenicity study of 4 formulations of Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed plus CPG 7909 (AV7909) in healthy adult volunteers. Vaccine, 31, 30, 3051-3058, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.04.063.
24. Rublenko, I.O. (2018). Sybirka u tvaryn. [Anthrax in animals]. Nauk. visnyk Lviv. nats. un-tu vet. medytsyny ta biotekhnolohii im. S.H. Gzhytskoho, [Science. Bulletin of Lviv. nat. un-tu vet. of Medicine and Biotechnology S.G. Gzhytsky], 20 (83), 13–16.
25. Rublenko, I.O. (2018). Vyznachennia stupenia zalyshkovoi virulentnosti i reaktohennosti shtamu Bac. anthracis UA–07. [Determination of the degree of residual virulence and reactogenicity of strain Bac. anthracis UA – 07] Nauk.-tekhn. biuleten In-tu biolohii tvaryn i DNDKI vetpreparativ ta kormovykh dobavok [Scientific and technical Bulletin of the Institute of Animal Biology and DNDKI veterinary drugs and feed additives], 19 (1), 102–108.
26. Rublenko, І.O.and Skrypnyk, V.G. (2016). Features of specific immunity formation in cattle after vaccination against animals anthrax with vaccine of UA–07 “Antravak” strain”. Bioresources and nature management: scientific-theoretical. Journal of NULES of Ukraine, 8. (№5–6), 67–71.
27. Sandra I. Sulsky, Rose S. Luippold, Patrick Garman, Hayley Hughes, Paul J. Amoroso, (2011). Risk of disability for US army personnel vaccinated against anthrax, 1998–2005, Vaccine, 29, 35, 6035-6041. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.06.028.
28. Skoble, J., Beaber, J.W., YiGao, Lovchik, J.A., Sower, L.E., Liu, W., Luckett, W., Peterson, J. W., Calendar, R., Portnoy, D. A., Lyons, C. R. and Dubensky, T.W. Jr. (2009).Killed but Metabolically Active Bacillus anthracis Vaccines Induce Broad and Protective Immunity against Anthrax. Infection and Immunity, 77(4), 1649-1663. DOI: 10.1128/IAI.00530-08. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/23939046_Killed_but_Metabolically_Active_Bacillus_anthracis_Vaccines_Induce_Broad_and_Protective_Immunity_against_Anthrax [accessed Sep 23 2020].
29. Spickler, A.R. (2017). The center of food security and public health: Disease Information. Anthrax 2017 At https://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/diseaseinfo/disease/?disease=anthrax&lang=en
30. Tracy Pondo, Charles E. Rose, Stacey W. Martin, Wendy A. Keitel, Harry L. Keyserling, Janiine Babcock, Scott Parker, Robert M. Jacobson, Gregory A. Poland, Michael M. McNeil (2014). Evaluation of sex, race, body mass index and pre-vaccination serum progesterone levels and post-vaccination serum anti-anthrax protective immunoglobulin G on injection site adverse events following anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) in the CDC AVA human clinical trial. Vaccine, 32, 28, 3548-3554, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.04.025.
31. William H. Catherino, Andrew Levi, Tzu-Cheg Kao, Mark P. Leondires, Jeffrey McKeeby, James H. Segars. (2005). Anthrax vaccine does not affect semen parameters, embryo quality, or pregnancy outcome in couples with a vaccinated male military service member. Fertility and Sterility, 83, 2, 480-483. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2004.07.965.
32. Zhang, Y., Martin, S.W., Rose Jr., C.E., Biagini, R.E., Franzke, L.H., Smith, J.P., Sammons, D.L., Robertson, S.A, McNeil, M.M.( 2008). Evaluation of body mass index, pre-vaccination serum progesterone levels and anti-anthrax protective antigen immunoglobulin G on injection site adverse events following anthrax vaccination in women. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, 17, 11, 1060-1067
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.