DIAGNOSIS OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY AND UFGENT THERAPY FOR PULMONARY EDEMA IN CATS
Pulmonary edema is a life-threatening condition caused by the penetration of blood plasma into the alveoli and interstitial space. The number of animals with signs of shortness of breath coming to the veterinary clinic is gradually increasing, and the initial actions of the doctor to stabilize the animal's condition are crucial in the patient's survival, so the research topic is relevant. The article is devoted to the assessment of animal body parameters that can be used in protocols for the stabilization of critical conditions for pulmonary edema in cats. The study groups included cats with signs of pulmonary edema, whose owners visited the clinic "Vet House" in Vinnytsia in the period 2018-2021. Special attention was paid to the following studies: anamnestic data, clinical examination results, features of radiographic changes, ultrasound results lung and heart diagnostics, laboratory blood tests. In the early stages of the disease, cats may not show any symptoms at all, and look perfectly healthy. Therefore, it is very difficult to detect and prevent this pathological condition. However, during a clinical examination by a veterinarian, some early signs of heart disease may be detected before any clinical symptoms of pulmonary edema appear. All domestic cats are at risk for cardiovascular disease, but some breeds are at increased risk. These include ragdoll breeds (and related breeds), Maine Coon, Sphinx and Rex. Cats fed poor quality taurine-deficient foods are also at increased risk for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMP). Congenital heart disease is uncommon in cats, usually stenosis or valve insufficiency, open ductus arteriosus, Fallot's tetrad, and so on. Pulmonary edema can be caused by various factors: cardiovascular disease, upper respiratory tract obstruction, toxic substances, asthma, sepsis, shock, electric shock, traumatic brain injury, metastatic neoplasia. Treatment of cats with signs of pulmonary edema is multi-stage, which involves the stabilization of the patient in the first stage until the final diagnosis. Animals with pulmonary edema, regardless of the cause, need standardized procedures at the beginning of stabilization. One of the benefits of initial stabilization is that the physician has time to consider an appropriate diagnostic and subsequent therapeutic approach.
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