Keywords: birds, adrenal gland, topography, shape, color, mass, size


The adrenal gland is a peripheral organ of the endocrine system. Its hormones affect the growth and differentiation of tissues, regulate protein, carbohydrate, fat, water, and mineral metabolism, and affect the body's resistance to infections, stress, intoxication, and other factors. The aim of the work was to establish the features of the macroscopic structure of the adrenal gland of birds of the order chicken-like (domestic quail, chicken and turkey), goose-like (musk-duck, domestic duck and goose) and pigeon-like (blue pigeon). Comparative anatomical, organometric and statistical research methods were used. It was found that the shape of the adrenal gland in the studied birds is different. The right adrenal gland is characterized by semilunar (domestic quail), rounded (domestic chicken), triangular (domestic turkey), square (musk-duck), round-elongated (domestic duck), pyramidal (domestic goose), elongated-pyramidal (domestic pigeon) shapes. The left adrenal gland is pyramidal (domestic chicken and duck), semilunar (domestic quail), lumpy (musk-duck), elongated-oval (domestic goose) or elongated-rounded (blue pigeon) in shape. The color of the adrenal glands of blue pigeon, domestic chicken and quail is pale yellow. In other species of birds studied, it varies from golden yellow (musk-duck, domestic turkey and goose) to yellow-brown (domestic duck). The absolute mass of the adrenal gland of birds depends on their body weight, increases from 0.023±0.00 g in domestic quail to 0.175±0.003 g in domestic turkey (chicken-shaped row), from 0.076±0.004 g in musk-duck to 0.662 ± 0.007 g in domestic turkey (goose-shaped row). In the blue pigeon (pigeon-like row), the absolute mass of the adrenal gland is the smallest among all the birds studied and is equal to 0.019± 0.001 g. relative to the length, width, and thickness of the adrenal gland, they are the largest in the domestic goose (10,95±0,26, 9,48±0,23, 4,71±0,17 mm, respectively), and the smallest-in the blue pigeon (3,53±0,04, 2,59±0,16, 1,33±0,03 mm, respectively). In all the birds studied, the largest average value is the length, slightly less the width, and the smallest is the thickness of the adrenal gland. The left adrenal gland, compared to the right adrenal gland, is relatively longer. The established features of the macroscopic structure of the adrenal gland of birds can be used to create the basis for its normal morphological characteristics, which will make it possible to assess the Morpho-functional state of this organ under the influence of various factors and pathology.


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How to Cite
Prokopenko, V. S., & Kot, T. F. (2021). MACROSCOPIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AVIAN ADRENAL GLAND. Bulletin of Sumy National Agrarian University. The Series: Veterinary Medicine, (4 (55), 17-23.