GERMINATION ENERGY AND FIELD SIMILARITY OF POTATO SEEDS FROM CROSSING AND SELF-POLLINATION
The article presents the results of the study of germination energy of hybrid seeds with the participation of complex interspecific hybrids and their self-pollination and varieties, as well as laboratory similarity performed at Sumy National Agrarian University in 2018. In separate blocks of combinations with the participation of the same parental form, a significant effect on the germination energy of hybrid seeds of crossbreeding components has been proved. For example, among the four combinations with pollinator interspecific hybrid of Belarusian selection 212.110-12, the difference in the manifestation of the indicator was 15.2 % with the least expression in combinations with maternal forms 83.58s52 and 85.291s12, respectively, self-pollination of four-species hybrid and single backcross hybrid. The difference in seed germination energy in five combinations with the pollinator of S. andigenum was 16.1 %, but in four (except for the use of the mother form of a single backcross of the six-species hybrid 86.96s32) it was 9.9 %. Similar data to the above were obtained in four combinations with the participation of the pollinator interspecific hybrid of Belarusian selection 212.31-10. The specific influence of crossbreeding components on the germination of hybrid seeds within 5–9 days was revealed. The best results were obtained among seeds with origin 86.96s32 x S. andigenum – 28.3 %. They were quite high in three more populations involving the species. The exception was the use of the mother form of double backcross sixspecies hybrid 89.721s81 – 9.2 %. In 54.1 % of combinations, the laboratory germination of seeds was 90 % or more with the maximum manifestation of the hybrid seed Shchedryk x Podoliya – 96.8 %. In another population with the participation of the mentioned maternal form also obtained high results – 95.4 %. The highest energy of seed germination from self-pollination was found in the variety Irbytska (90.8 %) and interspecific hybrids 81.436s4 and 81.1546s103 – 90.0 % each. The opposite was true for the Anika variety (76.0 %) and the onetime backcross of the six-species hybrid 85.291s12 (77.2 %). The maximum laboratory germination had seeds from selfpollination of Mezhyrichka variety – 96.0 % and four-species hybrid 81.1546с103 – 97.5 %. It was found that in terms of germination energy, hybrid seeds yielded to self-pollinated varieties by 6.0 %, and interspecific hybrids – by 5.2 %, and in terms of laboratory germination, it was 3.7 and 3.1 %, respectively. Only in some combinations: 90.691 / 21 x Svitanok kyivskiy, 81.397s50 x 212.31s10 and 891.1546s103 seed germination energy was higher than in seeds from self-pollination. At the same time, in the population of 83.58s52 x 212.110-12, the difference was the largest and negative – 16.1 %. Regarding the laboratory germination of seeds in only two combinations: 90.691 / 21 x Svitanok kyivskiy and 81.397s50 x 212.31-10 the difference with the material from self-pollination was positive, although with a small difference – 0.2 %.
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