Characteristics of cows of Ukrainian Black-and-White and Red-and-White structure dairy breeds by measurements and body indices
In the aspect of studies of cows of Ukrainian Red-and-Black and Black-and-White dairy breeds by type, animals were estimated by measurements and body structure indices in the age-related dynamics to characterize the development of cows by conformation at this stage of their improvement. The experiments were conducted in herds of stud farms for breeding Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed of AE "Mayak" of Zolotonosha district in Cherkasy region and LLC "Vladana" of Sumy district in Sumy region, farms for breeding of Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy breed of agricultural enterprise "Mayak" in Cherkasy region and LLC «Mlynіvskyi complex» of Romny district in Sumy region. Average height at the withers cows firstborn Ukrainian Red-and-White (132.6 and 134.5) and Black-and-White (133.3 and 136.2 cm) dairy breeds and at the rump (142.4 and 142.3 and 143, 3 and 144.5 cm) indicate primarily about satisfactory conditions of growing replacement heifers with slightly higher rates in favor of animals Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed. The best development of the body of first-born cows of the Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed was evidenced by the indices of depth measurements and girth of the breast, by which they are with a significant difference, respectively by 0.6 and 1.8 (P <0.001) and 1.6 (P <0.001) and 2.7 cm (P <0.01), exceeded the peers of the Ukrainian Red-and-white. The average levels of latitudinal measurements (width in hip bones, hip joints and gluteal humps) obtained characterize well the development of the pelvic part of the first-born cows of the controlled breeds and are important indicators of the conformation of the cows. Significant difference of different degrees in favor of cows of Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed was found by width in hip bones - 0.1 and 0.5 cm (P <0.001), hipbone - 0.4 and 0.7 cm (P <0.05) and in the ischium humps - 1.0 and 1.2 cm (P <0.001). Based on the results of studies, the average indices of pastern circumference showed that animals at this stage of selection have a strong dense type of constitution with the best expression of dairy type of cows of the Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed, in which the difference was 0.4-0.7 cm compared to peers of Ukrainian Red-and-White (P <0.001). The overall development of the chest in the first-born cows of the Mayak stud farm was good enough, as evidenced by the average indices of the chest index. However, a significant difference in favor of cows of the Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed of 2.3% by the pelvic index, 3.4% by the breast, 1.5% by the deep-chested and 1.2% by the broad-chested, indicates a better development in the animals of this breed in depth at compared to the peers of the Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy. In general, the estimation of the conformation of cows of Ukrainian dairy breeds by measurements and indices of the body structure in terms of lactations indicates the positive dynamics of the formation of conformation of animals in the dairy type. Animals are characterized by height, size, well-developed chest, broad pelvis.
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