MONITORING OF RISK FACTORS ON FARMS TO KEEP CHICKEN BROILERS
Observance of veterinary and sanitary control at all stages of production and identification of risk factors will help prevent unjustified losses in poultry. As the breeding qualities of broilers have improved significantly in recent years, the requirements for their welfare have increased accordingly. The research was conducted in PJSC "Myronivska Poultry Farm" of Cherkasy region of Cherkasy district, in the period November-December 2022. The main task was to determine the composition of the microflora circulating in birds of different ages. Received washes from various production surfaces in sterile containers. Samples of fecal masses were taken from each age group of chickens. Circulating microflora in indoor air was determined by sedimentation. Special tests and elective media were used to identify microorganisms. As a result of the conducted researches, the correlation between the age of chickens and the main composition of the microflora was established. Escherichia coli was 292.3% on the seventh day of the study, 201.28% on the fourteenth day, 75.64% on the twenty-first day, and 34.61% more on the 35th day compared to slaughter chickens. age. The share of Enterococcus faecium decreased from the first week in comparison with adult chickens by 150.92%, on the 14th day - by 122.65%, on the 21st day - by 80.46%, on the 35th day - by 71.87%. The tendency to decrease the number of Enterococcus faecalis on the seventh day was 232.76%, on the fourteenth - by 164.23%, on the twenty-first - by 148.39%, on the thirty-fifth - by 31.04%, compared with chickens on 42 days. On the seventh day the share of S. aureus was lower, compared to adult broilers by 72.85%, on the 14th day - by 37.01%, on the 21st day - by 28.87%, on the 35th day - by 20.77% . Intestinal population of Listeria monocytogenes increased similarly with age in adult chickens. The number of L. monocytogenes increased by 55.40% in week-old chickens, by 30.6% in 14-day-old chickens, by 20.32% in 21-day-old chickens, and by 11.96% in 35-day-old chickens. . On the seventh day of life, the number of Campylobacter spp. was less, compared to adult chickens by 72%, in 14 daily - by 66.28%, in 21 daily - by 27.42%, in 35 daily - by 12.51%. During the study, the amount of S. enterica in weekly broilers was higher than in adults by 174.07%, on the fourteenth day - by 140.0%, on the twenty-first - by 59.25%, on the thirty-fifth - by 14, 8%. The number of associated microflora increased with the age of the bird. The prospect of further research in this direction is to determine the sensitivity of the isolated microflora to antimicrobials.
2. Abdullah, S., Ain, Q., Jalil, A., Khan, D., Khan, A., Qasim, M., Badshah, M., & Adnan, F. (2022). Silencing of Curlin Protein via M13 Phagemid-Mediated Synthetic sRNA Expression Reduces Virulence in the Avian Pathogenic E. coli (APEC). Current microbiology, 79(4), 105. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00284-022-02791-y
3. Baxter, M., Richmond, A., Lavery, U., & O'Connell, N. E. (2021). A comparison of fast growing broiler chickens with a slower-growing breed type reared on Higher Welfare commercial farms. PloS one, 16(11), e0259333. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0259333
4. BESSEI, W. (2006). Welfare of broilers: A review. World's Poultry Science Journal, 62(3), 455-466. doi:10.1017/S0043933906001085
5. Cao, C., Chowdhury, V. S., Cline, M. A., & Gilbert, E. R. (2021). The Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis During Heat Stress in Chickens: A Review. Frontiers in physiology, 12, 752265. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.752265
a. Dame-Korevaar, A., Kers, J. G., van der Goot, J., Velkers, F. C., Ceccarelli, D., Mevius, D. J., Stegeman, A., & Fischer, E. (2020). Competitive Exclusion Prevents Colonization and Compartmentalization Reduces Transmission of ESBLProducing Escherichia coli in Broilers. Frontiers in microbiology, 11, 566619. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.566619
6. Danladi, Y., Loh, T. C., Foo, H. L., Akit, H., Md Tamrin, N. A., & Mohammad Naeem, A. (2022). Impact of Feeding Postbiotics and Paraprobiotics Produced From Lactiplantibacillus plantarum on Colon Mucosa Microbiota in Broiler Chickens. Frontiers in veterinary science, 9, 859284. https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2022.859284
7. Dziva, F., & Stevens, M. P. (2008). Colibacillosis in poultry: unravelling the molecular basis of virulence of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli in their natural hosts. Avian pathology : journal of the W.V.P.A, 37(4), 355–366. https://doi.org/10.1080/03079450802216652
8. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ), Koutsoumanis, K., Allende, A., Álvarez-Ordóñez, A., Bolton, D., Bover-Cid, S., Chemaly, M., Davies, R., De Cesare, A., Herman, L., Hilbert, F., Lindqvist, R., Nauta, M., Ru, G., Simmons, M., Skandamis, P., Suffredini, E., Argüello, H., Berendonk, T., Cavaco, L. M., … Peixe, L. (2021). Role played by the environment in the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) through the food chain. EFSA journal. European Food Safety Authority, 19(6), e06651. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2021.6651
9. Hartcher, K. M., & Lum, H. K. (2020). Genetic selection of broilers and welfare consequences: a review. World's poultry science journal, 76(1), 154-167. https://doi.org/10.1080/00439339.2019.1680025.
10. Hartung, T. (2010). Comparative analysis of the revised Directive 2010/63/EU for the protection of laboratory animals with its predecessor 86/609/EEC – a t4 report. ALTEX, 27(4), 285-303. doi: 10.14573/altex.2010.4.285
13. Jones, P. J., Niemi, J., Christensen, J.-P., Tranter, R. B., Bennett, R. M. (2018) A review of the financial impact of production diseases in poultry production systems. Animal Production Science 59, 1585-1597.https://doi.org/10.1071/AN18281
14. Koutsianos, D., Athanasiou, L. V., Mossialos, D., Franzo, G., Cecchinato, M., & Koutoulis, K. C. (2022). Investigation of Serotype Prevalence of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Layer Poultry in Greece and Interactions with Other Infectious Agents. Veterinary sciences, 9(4), 152. https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9040152
15. Laptev, G. Y., Filippova, V. A., Kochish, I. I., Yildirim, E. A., Ilina, L. A., Dubrovin, A. V., Brazhnik, E. A., Novikova, N. I., Novikova, O. B., Dmitrieva, M. E., Smolensky, V. I., Surai, P. F., Griffin, D. K., & Romanov, M. N. (2019). Examination of the Expression of Immunity Genes and Bacterial Profiles in the Caecum of Growing Chickens Infected with Salmonella Enteritidis and Fed a Phytobiotic. Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 9(9), 615. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9090615.
16. Manikandan, M., Chun, S., Kazibwe, Z., Gopal, J., Singh, U. B., & Oh, J. W. (2020). Phenomenal Bombardment of Antibiotic in Poultry: Contemplating the Environmental Repercussions. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(14), 5053. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145053.
17. McLeod, A. (2011). World livestock 2011-livestock in food security. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). https://www.fao.org/3/i2373e/i2373e00.htm
18. Messaoudi, S., Kergourlay, G., Rossero, A., Ferchichi, M., Prévost, H., Drider, D., Manai, M., & Dousset, X. (2011). Identification of lactobacilli residing in chicken ceca with antagonism against Campylobacter. International microbiology : the official journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology, 14(2), 103–110. https://doi.org/10.2436/20.1501.01.140
19. Mughini-Gras, L., Enserink, R., Friesema, I., Heck, M., van Duynhoven, Y., & van Pelt, W. (2014). Risk factors for human salmonellosis originating from pigs, cattle, broiler chickens and egg laying hens: a combined case-control and source attribution analysis. PloS one, 9(2), e87933. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087933
20. Oakley, B. B., Lillehoj, H. S., Kogut, M. H., Kim, W. K., Maurer, J. J., Pedroso, A., Lee, M. D., Collett, S. R., Johnson, T. J., & Cox, N. A. (2014). The chicken gastrointestinal microbiome. FEMS microbiology letters, 360(2), 100–112. https://doi.org/10.1111/1574-6968.12608.
21. Obe, T., Nannapaneni, R., Schilling, W., Zhang, L., McDaniel, C., & Kiess, A. (2020). Prevalence of Salmonella enterica on poultry processing equipment after completion of sanitization procedures. Poultry science, 99(9), 4539–4548. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.05.043
a. Ocejo, M., Oporto, B., & Hurtado, A. (2019). 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing characterization of caecal microbiome composition of broilers and free-range slow-growing chickens throughout their productive lifespan. Scientific reports, 9(1), 2506. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39323-x .
22. Ornelas-Eusebio, E., García-Espinosa, G., Laroucau, K., & Zanella, G. (2020). Characterization of commercial poultry farms in Mexico: Towards a better understanding of biosecurity practices and antibiotic usage patterns. PloS one, 15(12), e0242354. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0242354
23. Pedroso, A. A., Hurley-Bacon, A. L., Zedek, A. S., Kwan, T. W., Jordan, A. P., Avellaneda, G., Hofacre, C. L., Oakley, B. B., Collett, S. R., Maurer, J. J., & Lee, M. D. (2013). Can probiotics improve the environmental microbiome and resistome of commercial poultry production?. International journal of environmental research and public health, 10(10), 4534–4559. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10104534
24. Rahayuningtyas, I., Indrawati, A., Wibawan, I., Palupi, M. F., & Istiyaningsih, I. (2020). Phylogenetic group determination and plasmid virulence gene profiles of colistin-resistant Escherichia coli originated from the broiler meat supply chain in Bogor, Indonesia. Veterinary world, 13(9), 1807–1814. https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2020.1807-1814
25. Sabo, S., Mendes, M. A., Araújo, E., Muradian, L., Makiyama, E. N., LeBlanc, J. G., Borelli, P., Fock, R. A., Knöbl, T., & Oliveira, R. (2020). Bioprospecting of probiotics with antimicrobial activities against Salmonella Heidelberg and that produce B-complex vitamins as potential supplements in poultry nutrition. Scientific reports, 10(1), 7235. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-64038-9
26. Saint-Cyr, M. J., Haddad, N., Taminiau, B., Poezevara, T., Quesne, S., Amelot, M., Daube, G., Chemaly, M., Dousset, X., & Guyard-Nicodème, M. (2017). Use of the potential probiotic strain Lactobacillus salivarius SMXD51 to control Campylobacter jejuni in broilers. International journal of food microbiology, 247, 9–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2016.07.003
27. Stanley, D., Hughes, R. J., & Moore, R. J. (2014). Microbiota of the chicken gastrointestinal tract: influence on health, productivity and disease. Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 98(10), 4301–4310. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-014-5646-2
28. Swelum, A. A., Elbestawy, A. R., El-Saadony, M. T., Hussein, E., Alhotan, R., Suliman, G. M., Taha, A. E., Ba-Awadh, H., El-Tarabily, K. A., & Abd El-Hack, M. E. (2021). Ways to minimize bacterial infections, with special reference to Escherichia coli, to cope with the first-week mortality in chicks: an updated overview. Poultry science, 100(5), 101039. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101039
29. Thomson, N. M., Gilroy, R., Getino, M., Foster-Nyarko, E., van Vliet, A., La Ragione, R. M., & Pallen, M. J. (2022). Remarkable genomic diversity among Escherichia isolates recovered from healthy chickens. PeerJ, 10, e12935. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.12935
30. Weimer, S. L., Zuelly, S., Davis, M., Karcher, D. M., & Erasmus, M. A. (2022). Differences in carcass composition and meat quality of conventional and slow-growing broiler chickens raised at 2 stocking densities. Poultry science, 101(6), 101833. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2022.101833